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Fundamentals of .NET Support For Collections

 

Enumerating the Members of a Collection

 

Introduction to System Collections

In the previous lesson, we saw that, when creating a collection, you should provide a method that allows you to retrieve a member of the collection. You can list the members of an array or a collection through a technique called an enumeration. Enumerating a collection consists of visiting each member of the list, for any reason judged necessary. For example, you can enumerate a collection to display a list of its members. You can enumerate a collection when looking for a member that responds to a certain criterion.

Besides, or instead of, a for loop, the .NET Framework provides another and better support for enumeration. In the C++/CLI language, you can enumerate a collection using the for each operator, but the collection must be prepared for it: you cannot just use for each for any collection. This support is provided through two main interfaces: public IEnumerator and IEnumerable. These two interfaces are defined in the System::Collections namespace. Therefore, if you intend to use them, you can include this namespace in your source file.

Practical Learning Practical Learning: Introducing Built-In Collections

  1. Start Microsoft Visual C++ and create a new CLR Empty Project named BethesdaCarRental1
  2. To create a new class, in the Solution Explorer, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  3. In the Templates list, click C++ Class and click Add
  4. Set the Name to CCar and press Enter
  5. Change the Car.h header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    using namespace System;
    
    public ref class CCar
    {
    public:
        String ^ TagNumber;
        String ^ Make;
        String ^ Model;
        short    CarYear;
        int      Mileage;
        String ^ Category;
        bool     HasK7Player;
        bool     HasCDPlayer;
        bool     HasDVDPlayer;
        bool     Available;
    
        CCar ^ Next;
    
        CCar(void);
    };
  6. Access the Car.cpp source file and implement the constructor as follows:
     
    #include "Car.h"
    
    CCar::CCar()
    {
        TagNumber    = L"000 000";
        Make         = L"Unknown";
        Model        = L"Unknown";
        CarYear      = 1960;
        Mileage      = 0;
        Category     = L"Unknown";
        HasK7Player  = false;
        HasCDPlayer  = false;
        HasDVDPlayer = false;
        Available    = false;
    }
  7. To create a new class, in the Solution Explorer, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  8. In the Templates list, click C++ Class and click Add
  9. Set the Name to CInventory and click Finish
  10. Change the Inventory.h header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "Car.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    
    public ref class CInventory abstract
    {
    protected:
        int items;
    
    public:
        CInventory(void);
       
        property int Count
        {
            int get() { return items; }
        }
    
        virtual int Add(CCar ^ obj) = 0;
        virtual CCar ^ Get(int index) = 0;
        virtual bool Delete() = 0;
    };
  11. Access the Inventory.cpp source file and change it as follows:
     
    #include "Inventory.h"
    
    CInventory::CInventory(void)
    {
        items = 0;
    }
  12. To create a new class, in the Class View, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  13. In the Templates list, click C++ Class and click Add
  14. Set the Name to CCarInventory and click Finish
  15. Change the CarInventory.h header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "Inventory.h"
    #include "Car.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    
    public ref class CCarInventory : public CInventory
    {
    public:
        CCar ^ Head;
        CCar ^ Current;
        CCar ^ Inventory;
    
        virtual int Add(CCar ^ NewCar) override;
        virtual CCar ^ Get(int index) override;
        virtual bool Delete() override;
    
        CCarInventory(void);
    };
  16. Access the CarInventory.cpp source file and change it as follows:
     
    #include "CarInventory.h"
    
    CCarInventory::CCarInventory(void)
    {
        Head = nullptr;
    }
    
    int CCarInventory::Add(CCar ^ NewCar)
    {
        CCar ^ Sample = gcnew CCar;
    
        Sample = NewCar;
        Sample->Next = Head;
        Head = Sample;
        return items++;
    }
    
    CCar ^ CCarInventory::Get(int index)
    {
        CCar ^ Current = Head;
    
        for(int i = Count - 1;
            i > index && Current != nullptr;
            i--)
            Current = Current->Next;
        return Current;
    }
    
    bool CCarInventory::Delete()
    {
        if (Head == nullptr)
        {
            Console::WriteLine(L"The inventory is empty");
            return false;
        }
    
        CCar ^ Current;
    
        Current = Head->Next;
        Head->Next = Current->Next;
        items--;
        return true;
    }
  17. Save all  

Introduction to the IEnumerator Interface

The IEnumerator interface provides the means of identifying the class that holds a sample of the items that will be enumerated. This interface is equipped with one property and two methods. To use the functionalities provided by the IEnumerator interface, you must create a class that implements it. You can start the class as follows:

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
};

If your collection is an array-based list, you can start by declaring the base array in the class: Here is an example:

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;
};

If the collection is not array-based, you can declare a variable for the class that would be enumerated.

The role of the enumerator is to act on a collection. For this reason, the class should be prepared to receive an external collection. This can be done by passing it to a constructor of the enumerator. Here is an example:

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;

public:
    CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list);
};

CEnumerator::CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list)
{
}

The internal collection would be used in the enumerator class. The external collection would be the source of the values of the list that would be enumerated. For these reasons, you can/should initialize the internal collection with the values of the external list. This can be done as follows:

CEnumerator::CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list)
{
    numbers = list;
}

Practical Learning Practical Learning: Introducing Enumerations

  1. To create a new class, in the Class View, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  2. In the Templates list, click C++ Class and click Add
  3. Set the Name of the class to CCarIdentifier and click Finish
  4. Change the file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "CarInventory.h"
    
    using namespace System::Collections;
    
    public ref class CCarIdentifier : public IEnumerator
    {
    public:
        CCarInventory ^ counts;
        void Identify(CCarInventory ^ list);
    
        CCarIdentifier(void);
    };
  5. Access the CarIdentifier.cpp source file and change it as follows:
     
    #include "CarIdentifier.h"
    
    CCarIdentifier::CCarIdentifier(void)
    {
    }
    
    void CCarIdentifier::Identify(CCarInventory ^ list)
    {
        counts = list;
    }
  6. Save all

The Current Item of an Enumeration

When introducing some techniques of creating a list, we saw that you should have a type of tag, as a member variable, that allows you to monitor the item that is being currently accessed or used in the list. This is particularly valuable when visiting the members of the collection. The IEnumerator interface provides a property that is used to identify the current member of the list. This property is called Current. Because the current item is meant to be viewed only, the Current property is a read-only one. Based on the rules of abstract classes, remember that you must implement all members of an interface in the class that is based on it.

To implement the Current property, you can implement its get accessor to return the item at the current position. This can be done as follows:

using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;
    int cur;

public:
    CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list);

    virtual property Object ^ Current
    {
        Object ^ get() { return numbers[cur]; }
    }
};

Practical Learning Practical Learning: Getting to the Current Item

  1. Access the CarIdentifier.h header file and implement the IEnumerator::Current property as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "CarInventory.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    using namespace System::Collections;
    
    public ref class CCarIdentifier : public IEnumerator
    {
    private:
        int curPosition;
    
    public:
        CCarInventory ^ counts;
        void Identify(CCarInventory ^ list);
    
        property Object ^ Current
        {
            virtual Object ^ get()
            {
                try {
                    return counts->Get(this->curPosition);
                }
                catch(IndexOutOfRangeException ^)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine(L"The current item must be accessed "
                                       L"within the range of available items");
                    return nullptr;
                }
            }
        }
    
        CCarIdentifier(void);
    };
  2. Access the CarIdentifier.cpp source file and change the constructor as follows:
     
    CCarIdentifier::CCarIdentifier(void)
    {
        curPosition = -1;
    }
  3. Save the file

Resetting the Tag of the Current Item

Although you should be able to identify the current item at any time, when the application starts, before the collection can be enumerated, the tag that is used to monitor the current item should be set to a value before the beginning of the count. This can be done by setting the tag to -1. Here is an example:

CEnumerator::CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list)
{
    numbers = list;
    cur = -1;
}

While the collection is being used, at one moment you may want to reset the tag of the current item to its original position. To support this operation, the IEnumerator interface is equipped with a method named Reset. Its syntax is:

void Reset();

When implementing this method, simply assign a non-existing value, which is usually -1, to the monitoring tag of the current item. This can be done as follows:

using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;
    int cur;

public:
    CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list);

    virtual property Object ^ Current
    {
        Object ^ get() { return numbers[cur]; }
    }

    virtual void Reset();
};

CEnumerator::CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list)
{
    numbers = list;
    cur = -1;
}

void CEnumerator::Reset()
{
    cur = -1;
}

When using the implementer of the IEnumerator interface, if you try accessing an item beyond the maximum number of items, the compiler would throw an IndexOutOfRangeException exception. For this reason, when anticipating a bad behavior, you should catch this exception when implementing the Current property. Here is an example:

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;
    int cur;

public:
    CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list);

    virtual property Object ^ Current
    {
        Object ^ get()
        {
	    try {
                return numbers[cur];
	    }
            catch(IndexOutOfRangeException ^)
            {
		Console::WriteLine(L"The current item must be accessed "
                                   L"within the range of available items");
                return nullptr;
            }
        }
    }
};

Practical Learning Practical Learning: Resetting the Tag of the Current Item

  1. Access the CarIdentifier.h header file and declare the IEnumerator::Reset() method as follows:
     
    . . . No Change
    
    public ref class CCarIdentifier : public IEnumerator
    {
    private:
        int curPosition;
    
    public:
        
        . . . No Change
    
        virtual void Reset();
        CCarIdentifier(void);
    };
  2. Open the CarInventory.cpp source file and implement the Reset() method as follows:
     
    #include "CarIdentifier.h"
    
    . . . No Change
    
    void CCarIdentifier::Reset()
    {
        curPosition = -1;
    }
  3. Save all

Moving to the Next Item in the Enumerator

In the previous lesson, we saw that, when using the items of a collection, one way you can locate one item from another is to be able to jump from one item to the next. This operation is also very important when enumerating a collection. To support this operation, the IEnumerator interface is quipped with the MoveNext() method. Its syntax is:

bool MoveNext();

When implementing this method, first increment the tag that monitors the current item of the collection. After incrementing the tag, check whether it is lower than the total number of items. If it is, return true. Otherwise, return false. This can be done as follows:

using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;
    int cur;

public:
    CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list);

    virtual property Object ^ Current
    {
        Object ^ get()
        {
	    try {
                return numbers[cur];
	    }
            catch(IndexOutOfRangeException ^)
            {
		Console::WriteLine(L"The current item must be accessed "
                                   L"within the range of available items");
            }
        }
    }

    virtual void Reset();
    virtual bool MoveNext();
};

CEnumerator::CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list)
{
    numbers = list;
    cur = -1;
}

void CEnumerator::Reset()
{
    cur = -1;
}

bool CEnumerator::MoveNext()
{
    cur++;

    if( cur < numbers->Length )
        return true;
    else
        return false;
}

Practical Learning Practical Learning: Moving to the Next Item in the Enumerator

  1. Access the CarIdentifier.h header file and declare the IEnumerator::MoveNext() method as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "CarInventory.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    using namespace System::Collections;
    
    public ref class CCarIdentifier : public IEnumerator
    {
    private:
        int curPosition;
    
    public:
        CCarInventory ^ counts;
        void Identify(CCarInventory ^ list);
    
        property Object ^ Current
        {
            virtual Object ^ get()
            {
                try {
                    return counts->Get(this->curPosition);
                }
                catch(IndexOutOfRangeException ^)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine(L"The current item must be accessed "
                                       L"within the range of available items");
                    return nullptr;
                }
            }
        }
    
        virtual void Reset();
        virtual bool MoveNext();
    
        CCarIdentifier(void);
    };
  2. Open the CarInventory.cpp source file and implement the Reset() method as follows:
     
    #include "CarIdentifier.h"
    
    CCarIdentifier::CCarIdentifier(void)
    {
        curPosition = -1;
    }
    
    void CCarIdentifier::Identify(CCarInventory ^ list)
    {
        counts = list;
    }
    
    void CCarIdentifier::Reset()
    {
        curPosition = -1;
    }
    
    bool CCarIdentifier::MoveNext()
    {
        curPosition++;
    
        if( curPosition < counts->Count )
            return true;
        else
            return false;
    }
  3. Save all

An Enumerable Collection

 

Introduction

The IEnumerator interface is used to set up a collection for enumeration. To use for each, you cannot use the IEnumerator interface. Therefore, the next step is to implement another interface called IEnumerable. While the IEnumerator interface is used to identify the class that holds each value that will be visited, the IEnumerable interface is used to communicate with the collection whose items will be enumerated. For this reason, when implementing this interface, you should provide the means of accessing the external collection. This can be done by passing a collection of the class that holds the values, to a constructor of the IEnumerable implementer.

Getting the Enumerator

To implement the IEnumerable interface, start by deriving a class from it. While the class implemented by the IEnumerator interface represents an object, the class that implements the IEnumerable interface is a collection. Here is an example:

using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerable : public IEnumerable
{
};

The new class doesn't know what collection it will be asked to enumerate. For this reason, in the new class, you should declare a member variable of the class that holds the values that will be enumerated. If the collection is array-based, you can create the member variable as follows:

public ref class CEnumerable : public IEnumerable
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;
};

Eventually, when instantiating the IEnumerable implementer, you will need to pass it a collection of values. To make this possible, you can create a method in the new class and pass that collection of objects. Here is an example:

using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerable : public IEnumerable
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;

public:
    void Identify(array<double> ^ values);
};

In this method, you can assign the member variable to the argument. You should also assign each member of the argument to its equivalent of the member of the argument. This can be done as follows:

void CEnumerable::Identify(array<double> ^ values)
{
    numbers = values;
    for(int i = 0; i < values->Length; i++)
        numbers[i] = values[i];
}

To support the use of the for each loop, the IEnumerable interface is equipped with (only) a (one) method named GetEnumerator that you must implement. The IEnumerable::GetEnumerator() method returns an IEnumerator object:

public ref class CEnumerable : public IEnumerable
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;

    void Identify(array<double> ^ values);
    virtual IEnumerator ^ GetEnumerator();
};

When implementing this method, you can return an object of the class that implements the IEnumerator interface, passing it the collection that was declared in the IEnumerable implementer. This can be done as follows: 

#include "Enumerable.h"
#include "Enumerator.h"

void CEnumerable::Identify(array<double> ^ values)
{
    numbers = values;
    for(int i = 0; i < values->Length; i++)
        numbers[i] = values[i];
}

IEnumerator ^ CEnumerable::GetEnumerator()
{
    return gcnew CEnumerator(numbers);
}

Practical Learning Practical Learning: Getting the Enumerator

  1. To create a new class, in the Class View, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  2. In the Templates list, click C++ Class and click Add
  3. Set the Name of the class to CCars and click Finish
  4. Change the Cars.h header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "CarInventory.h"
    #include "CarIdentifier.h"
    
    using namespace System::Collections;
    
    public ref class CCars : public IEnumerable
    {
    private:
        CCarInventory ^ items;
    
    public:
        void Locate(CCarInventory ^ list);
        virtual IEnumerator ^ GetEnumerator(); 
    
        CCars(void);
    };
  5. Open the Cars.cpp source file and change it as follows:
     
    #include "Cars.h"
    
    CCars::CCars(void)
    {
    }
    
    void CCars::Locate(CCarInventory ^ list)
    {
        items = gcnew CCarInventory();
    
        for(int i = 0; i < list->Count; i++)
            items->Add(list->Get(i));
    }
    
    IEnumerator ^ CCars::GetEnumerator()
    {
        CCarIdentifier ^ cid = gcnew CCarIdentifier;
    
        cid->Identify(items);
        return cid; 
    }
  6. Save all

Using for each

After implementing the IEnumerator and the IEnumerable interfaces, you can then use the for each loop. To start, you must prepare the collection and its items for processing. Here is an example:

using namespace System;

int main()
{
    array<double> ^  numbers = gcnew array<double>(5);
    numbers[0] = 224.52;
    numbers[1] = 60.48;
    numbers[2] = 1250.64;
    numbers[3] = 8.86;
    numbers[4] = 1005.36;

    return 0;
}

To enumerate the collection, declare a variable based on the implementer of the IEnumerable and pass the collection to its constructor. Once this is done, you can then use the for each. Here is an example:

Header File: Enumerator.h
using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerator : public IEnumerator
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;
    int cur;

public:
    CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list);

    virtual property Object ^ Current
    {
        Object ^ get()
        {
	    try {
                return numbers[cur];
	    }
            catch(IndexOutOfRangeException ^)
            {
		Console::WriteLine(L"The current item must be accessed "
                                   L"within the range of available items");
		return nullptr;
            }
        }
    }

    virtual void Reset();
    virtual bool MoveNext();
};
Source File: Enumerator.cpp
#include "Enumerator.h"

CEnumerator::CEnumerator(array<double> ^ list)
{
    numbers = list;
    cur = -1;
}

void CEnumerator::Reset()
{
    cur = -1;
}

bool CEnumerator::MoveNext()
{
    cur++;

    if( cur < numbers->Length )
        return true;
    else
        return false;
}
Header File: Enumerable.h
#pragma once
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class CEnumerable : public IEnumerable
{
private:
    array<double> ^ numbers;

public:
    CEnumerable(void);

    void Identify(array<double> ^ values);
    virtual IEnumerator ^ GetEnumerator();
};
Source File: Enumerable.cpp
#include "Enumerable.h"
#include "Enumerator.h"

CEnumerable::CEnumerable(void)
{
}

void CEnumerable::Identify(array<double> ^ values)
{
    numbers = values;
    for(int i = 0; i < values->Length; i++)
        numbers[i] = values[i];
}

IEnumerator ^ CEnumerable::GetEnumerator()
{
    return gcnew CEnumerator(numbers);
}
Source File: Exercise.cpp
using namespace System;

#include "Enumerable.h"

int main()
{
    array<double> ^  numbers = gcnew array<double>(5);
    numbers[0] = 224.52;
    numbers[1] = 60.48;
    numbers[2] = 1250.64;
    numbers[3] = 8.86;
    numbers[4] = 1005.36;

    CEnumerable ^ coll = gcnew CEnumerable;
        
    coll->Identify(numbers);
    for each(double d in coll)
        Console::WriteLine(L"Item {0}", d);

    return 0;
}

    This would produce:

Item 224.52
Item 60.48
Item 1250.64
Item 8.86
Item 1005.36
Press any key to continue . . .

Practical Learning Practical Learning: Using for each on an Enumerator

  1. To create a new file, in the Solution Explorer, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> New Item...
  2. In the Templates list, click C++ File (.cpp)
  3. Set the Name to Exercise and click OK
  4. Implement the file as follows:
     
    #include "CarInventory.h"
    #include "Car.h"
    #include "Cars.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    
    int main()
    {
        CCarInventory ^ cars = gcnew CCarInventory;
        CCar ^ nice;
    
        nice = gcnew CCar;
        nice->TagNumber    = L"527 495";
        nice->Make         = L"Honda";
        nice->Model        = L"Civic";
        nice->CarYear      = 2006;
        nice->Mileage      = 8631;
        nice->Category     = L"Compact";
        nice->HasK7Player  = false;
        nice->HasCDPlayer  = true;
        nice->HasDVDPlayer = false;
        nice->Available    = true;
        cars->Add(nice);
    
        nice = gcnew CCar;
        nice->TagNumber    = L"M838400";
        nice->Make         = L"Ford";
        nice->Model        = L"Expedition";
        nice->CarYear      = 2004;
        nice->Mileage      = 48631;
        nice->Category     = L"SUV";
        nice->HasK7Player  = false;
        nice->HasCDPlayer  = true;
        nice->HasDVDPlayer = true;
        nice->Available    = false;
        cars->Add(nice);
    	
        nice = gcnew CCar;
        nice->TagNumber    = L"LRT825";
        nice->Make         = L"Kia";
        nice->Model        = L"Rio";
        nice->CarYear      = 2007;
        nice->Mileage      = 12504;
        nice->Category     = L"Economy";
        nice->HasK7Player  = false;
        nice->HasCDPlayer  = false;
        nice->HasDVDPlayer = false;
        nice->Available    = false;
        cars->Add(nice);
    	
        nice = gcnew CCar;
        nice->TagNumber    = L"917035";
        nice->Make         = L"Toyota";
        nice->Model        = L"Camry";
        nice->CarYear      = 2006;
        nice->Mileage      = 10664;
        nice->Category     = L"Full Size";
        nice->HasK7Player  = true;
        nice->HasCDPlayer  = true;
        nice->HasDVDPlayer = false;
        nice->Available    = true;
        cars->Add(nice);
    
        CCars ^ collection = gcnew CCars;
        collection->Locate(cars);
    
        Console::WriteLine(L"=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=");
        Console::WriteLine(L"Total: {0} Cars in company inventory",
                    cars->Count);
        Console::WriteLine(L"=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=");
        Console::WriteLine(L"Inventory Summary");
        for each(CCar ^ car in collection)
        {
            Console::WriteLine(L"=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=");
            Console::WriteLine(L"Car Information");
            Console::WriteLine(L"-------------------------------");
    		Console::WriteLine(L"Tag #:      {0}", car->TagNumber);
            Console::WriteLine(L"Make:       {0}", car->Make);
            Console::WriteLine(L"Model:      {0}", car->Model);
            Console::WriteLine(L"Year:       {0}", car->CarYear);
            Console::WriteLine(L"Mileage:    {0}", car->Mileage);
            Console::WriteLine(L"Category:   {0}", car->Category);
            Console::WriteLine(L"K7 Plaher:  {0}", car->HasK7Player);
            Console::WriteLine(L"CD Player:  {0}", car->HasCDPlayer);
            Console::WriteLine(L"DVD Plaher: {0}", car->HasDVDPlayer);
            Console::WriteLine(L"Available:  {0}", car->Available);
        }
        Console::WriteLine(L"=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=");
        return 0;
    }
  5. Execute the application to see the result:
     
    =+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
    Total: 4 Cars in company inventory
    =+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
    Inventory Summary
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    Car Information
    -------------------------------
    Tag #:      527 495
    Make:       Honda
    Model:      Civic
    Year:       2006
    Mileage:    8631
    Category:   Compact
    K7 Plaher:  False
    CD Player:  True
    DVD Plaher: False
    Available:  True
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    Car Information
    -------------------------------
    Tag #:      M838400
    Make:       Ford
    Model:      Expedition
    Year:       2004
    Mileage:    48631
    Category:   SUV
    K7 Plaher:  False
    CD Player:  True
    DVD Plaher: True
    Available:  False
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    Car Information
    -------------------------------
    Tag #:      LRT825
    Make:       Kia
    Model:      Rio
    Year:       2007
    Mileage:    12504
    Category:   Economy
    K7 Plaher:  False
    CD Player:  False
    DVD Plaher: False
    Available:  False
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    Car Information
    -------------------------------
    Tag #:      917035
    Make:       Toyota
    Model:      Camry
    Year:       2006
    Mileage:    10664
    Category:   Full Size
    K7 Plaher:  True
    CD Player:  True
    DVD Plaher: False
    Available:  True
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
    Press any key to continue . . .
  6. Close the DOS window

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