Introduction to Functions 



Fundamental Functions 
Introduction 
Before getting into functions, let's experiment with Microsoft Excel's use and recognition of mathematical operations. Microsoft Excel is aware of such algebra operations as the addition (+), the subtraction (), the multiplication (*), and the division (/). These operations can be applied to numbers typed in a cell when performing the operation, they can be gotten from another cell. 
The AutoSum 
The SUM function is the most basic and one of the most popular functions used in Microsoft Excel. It is used to get the addition of various numbers or the contents of various cells. The result can be displayed in another cell or used in an expression. 
Practical Learning: Using AutoSum 

AutoCalculate 
On the Status Bar, the AutoCalculate pane allows you to get a quick result of the most used functions in Microsoft Excel. 
Practical Learning: Using AutoCalculate 

The Absolute Value 
The decimal numeric system counts from minus infinity (∞) to infinity (+∞). This means that a number can be usually negative or positive, depending on its position from 0, which is considered as neutral. In some operations, the number considered will need to be only positive even if it is provided in a negative format. The absolute value of a number x is x if the number is (already) positive. If the number is negative,
then its absolute value is its positive equivalent. For example, the absolute value of 12 is 12, while the absolute value of –12 is 12. ABS(number)

The Ceiling of a Number 
Consider a floating number such as 12.155. As you can see, this number is between integer 12 and integer 13
On the other hand, consider a number such as –24.06. As this number is negative, it is between –24 and –25, with –24 being greater. CEILING(number, significance) The function takes two arguments. The number argument is the one that will be considered. The significance argument is the nearest multiple significance 
The Floor of a Number 
Consider two floating numbers such as 128.44 and 36.72. The number 128.44 is between 128 and 129 with 128 being the lower. The number –36.72 is between –37 and –36 with –37 being the lower. The lowest but closest integer value of a number is referred to as its floor. For example, the floor of 128.44 is 128. The floor of –36.72 is –37. FLOOR(number, significance)
The FLOOR() function takes two arguments. The first argument argument is
the number to be considered. The second argument is the nearest multiple of significance. 
The Power of a Number 
We saw in Lesson8 that, to raise a number to another, you could use the ^ operator. Microsoft Excel provides a function to perform the same operation. The POWER() function is used to calculate the value of one number or expression raised to the power of another number. It uses the formula x^{y}. The syntax of the POWER function is: POWER(number, power)
This function takes two required arguments. The first argument, number, is used as the base number to be evaluated. The second argument,
power, also called the exponent, will raise number to this value. 
The Exponential 
Microsoft Excel provides the EXP function used to calculate the exponential value of a number. Its syntax is: EXP(number) The argument, number, a doubleprecision value, represents the number to be evaluated. If the value of number is less than 708.395996093 (approximately), the result is reset to 0 and qualifies as underflow. If the value of the argument x is greater than 709.78222656 (approximately), the result is infinity and qualified as overflow.

The Log10 
The LOG10 function calculates the base 10 logarithm of a number. The syntax of this function is: LOG10(number) The number to be evaluated is passed as the argument number. The function returns the logarithm on base 10 using the formula: y = LOG10x which is equivalent to x = 10^{y} 
The Square Root 
There are two forms of calculating the square root of a (real positive) number. The SQRT function is used to calculate the square root of a doubleprecision number. Its syntax is: SQRT(number) This function takes one argument as a positive floating number. After the calculation, the function returns the square root of x: = SQRT(E12) 
Other arithmetic functions include COMBIN, EVEN, EXP, FACT, INT, LN, LOG, LOG10, MOD, ODD, PI, RAND, ROMAN, ROUND, ROUNDDOWN, ROUNDUP, SIGN, SQRT, SUBTOTAL, SUMSQ, and TRUNC. 
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