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Visual C++/CLI Collections: Dictionary-Based Collection Classes

 

Description

A dictionary is a list of items with the following two rules:

  • Each item is a combination of a key and a value. An item can be made of three parts: a key, a value, and a correspondence between them. The correspondence can be represented by the assignment operator: Key=Value. In some environments, the = operator is used. In some others, the : operator is used. Yet in some others, there is no actual operator that joins both sides but you must know that the key and the value go in pair
  • As each item is a combination of a key and a value, each key must be unique. The list of items in the dictionary can be very huge, sometimes in the thousands or even millions. Among the items, each key must be distinct from any other key in the dictionary

In some cases, in addition to these two rules, the items should - in some cases must - be ordered. To order the items, the keys are used. Because in most cases a dictionary is made of words, the keys are ordered in alphabetical order. A dictionary can also be made of items whose keys are date values. In this case, the items would be ordered in chronological order.

There are various types of dictionary types of list used in daily life. The word "dictionary" here does not imply the traditional dictionary that holds the words and their meanings in the English language. The concept is applied in various scenarios.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Introducing Dictionary Collections

  1. Start Microsoft Visual Studio
  2. Create a new Windows Application named BethesdaCarRental1
  3. To add a new form to the project, in the Solution Explorer, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> New Item...
  4. Click Windows Form.
  5. Set the Name to RentalRates and press Enter
  6. Add a ListView to the form and create its Columns as follows:
     
    (Name) Text TextAlign Width
    colCategory Category   90
    colDaily Daily Right  
    colWeekly Weekly Right  
    colMonthly Monthly Right  
    colWeekend Weekend Right  
  7. Create its Items as follows:
     
    ListViewItem SubItems SubItems SubItems SubItems
      Text Text Text Text
    Economy 35.95 32.75 28.95 24.95
    Compact 39.95 35.75 32.95 28.95
    Standard 45.95 39.75 35.95 32.95
    Full Size 49.95 42.75 38.95 35.95
    Mini Van 55.95 50.75 45.95 42.95
    SUV 55.95 50.75 45.95 42.95
    Truck 42.75 38.75 35.95 32.95
    Van 69.95 62.75 55.95 52.95
  8. Complete the design of the form as follows:
     
    Rental Rates
  9. To add a new form to the application, in the Solution Explorer, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> New Item...
  10. Click Windows Form and set the Name to Employees
  11. Click Add
  12. From the Toolbox, add a ListView to the form
  13. While the new list view is still selected, in the Properties window, click the ellipsis button of the Columns field and create the columns as follows:
     
    (Name) Text TextAlign Width
    colEmployeeNumber Empl #   45
    colFirstName First Name   65
    colLastName Last Name   65
    colFullName Full Name   140
    colTitle Title   120
    colHourlySalary Hourly Salary Right 75
  14. Design the form as follows: 
     
    Bethesda Car Rental: Employees
     
    Control Text Name Other Properties
    ListView   lvwEmployees Anchor: Top, Bottom, Left, Right
    FullRowSelect: True
    GridLines: True
    View: Details
    Button New Employee... btnNewEmployee  
    Button Close btnClose  
  15. To add another form to the application, in the Solution Explorer, right- click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> New Item...
  16. Click Windows Form and set the Name to EmployeeEditor
  17. Click Add
  18. Design the form as follows: 
     
    Bethesda Car Rental: Employees
     
    Control Text Name Properties
    Label &Employee #:    
    MaskedTextBox   txtEmployeeNumber Mask: 00-000
    Modifiers: public
    Label First Name:    
    TextBox   txtFirstName Modifiers: public
    Label Last Name:    
    TextBox   txtLastName Modifiers: public
    Label Full Name:    
    TextBox   txtFullName Enabled: False
    Modifiers: public
    Label Title:    
    TextBox   txtTitle Modifiers: public
    Label Hourly Salary:    
    TextBox   txtHourlySalary Modifiers: public
    TextAlign: Right
    Button OK btnOK DialogResult: OK
    Button Cancel btnCancel DialogResult: Cancel
    Form     AcceptButton: btnOK
    CancelButton: btnCancel
    FormBorderStyle: FixedDialog
    MaximizeBox: False
    MinimizeBox: False
    ShowInTaskbar: False
  19. Click the Last Name text box
  20. In the Properties window, click the Events button and double-click Leave
  21. Implement the event as follows:
     
    // This code is used to create and display the customer's full name
    System::Void txtLastName_Leave(System::Object^  sender,
    			System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        String ^ strFirstName = txtFirstName->Text;
        String ^ strLastName = txtLastName->Text;
        String ^ strFullName;
    
        if (strFirstName->Length == 0)
            strFullName = strLastName;
        else
            strFullName = strLastName + L", " + strFirstName;
    
        txtFullName->Text = strFullName;
    }
  22. To add a new class to the project, in the Class View, right- click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  23. Click C++ Class
  24. Click Add
  25. Set the Class Name to CEmployee
  26. Click Finish
  27. Change the header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    using namespace System;
    
    [Serializable]
    public ref class CEmployee
    {
    public:
        String ^ FirstName;
        String ^ LastName;
        String ^ Title;
        double HourlySalary;
    
        property String ^ FullName
        {
            String ^ get()
    	{
    		return LastName+ L", " + FirstName;
    	}
        }
    
    public:
        CEmployee(void);
        CEmployee(String ^ fname, String ^ lname,
                  String ^ title, double salary);
    };
  28. Change the source file as follows:
     
    #include "StdAfx.h"
    #include "Employee.h"
    
    // This default constructor says that
    // the employee is not defined
    CEmployee::CEmployee(void)
        : FirstName(L"Unknown"),
          LastName(L"Unknown"),
          Title(L"N/A"),
          HourlySalary(0.00)
    {
    }
            
    // This constructor completely defines an employee
    CEmployee::CEmployee(System::String ^fname,
    		     System::String ^lname,
    	 	     System::String ^title,
    		     double salary)
        : FirstName(fname),
          LastName(lname),
          Title(title),
          HourlySalary(salary)
    {
    }
  29. To add a new form to the application, on the main menu, click Project -> Add New Item...
  30. Click Windows Forms
  31. Set the Name to Customers
  32. Press Enter
  33. From the Toolbox, add a ListView to the form
  34. While the new list view is still selected, in the Properties window, click the ellipsis button of the Columns field and create the columns as follows:
     
    (Name) Text Width
    colDrvLicNbr Driver's Lic. # 100
    colFullName Full Name 100
    colAddress Address 160
    colCity City 100
    colState State 38
    colZIPCode ZIPCode  
  35. Design the form as follows: 
     
    Bethesda Car Rental: Customers
     
    Control Text Name Other Properties
    ListView   lvwCustomers View: Details
    GridLines: True
    FullRowSelect: True
    Button New Customer... btnNewCustomer  
    Button Close btnClose  
  36. To add another form to the application, on the main menu, click Project -> Add New Item...
  37. Click Windows Forms and cet the Name to CustomerEditor
  38. Click Add
  39. Design the form as follows: 
     
    Bethesda Car Rental: Customers
     
    Control Text Name Properties
    Label Driver's Lic. #:    
    TextBox   txtDrvLicNbr Modifiers: Public
    Label State:    
    ComboBox   cbxStates Modifiers: Public
    Items: AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, HI, ID, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY
    Label Full Name:    
    TextBox   txtFullName Modifiers: Public
    Label Address:    
    TextBox   txtAddress Modifiers: Public
    Label City:    
    TextBox   txtCity Modifiers: Public
    Label ZIP Code:    
    TextBox   txtZIPCode Modifiers: Public
    Button OK btnOK DialogResult: OK
    Button Close btnCancel DialogResult: Cancel
    Form     AcceptButton: btnOK
    CancelButton: btnCancel
    FormBorderStyle: FixedDialog
    MaximizeBox: False
    MinimizeBox: False
    ShowInTaskbar: False
  40. To add a new class to the project, in the Class View, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  41. Click C++ Class
  42. Click Add
  43. Set the Class Name to CCustomer
  44. Click Finish
  45. Change the header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    using namespace System;
    
    [Serializable]
    public ref class CCustomer
    {
    public:
        String ^ FullName;
        String ^ Address;
        String ^ City;
        String ^ State;
        String ^ ZIPCode;
    
    public:
    	CCustomer(void);
        CCustomer(String ^ fName,
                  String ^ adr, String ^ ct,
                  String ^ ste, String ^ zip);
    };
  46. Change the source file as follows:
     
    #include "StdAfx.h"
    #include "Customer.h"
    
    CCustomer::CCustomer(void)
        : FullName(L""),
          Address(L""),
          City(L""),
          State(L""),
          ZIPCode(L"")
    {
    }
    
    // This constructor defines a customer
    CCustomer::CCustomer(String ^ fName,
                         String ^ adr, String ^ ct,
                         String ^ ste, String ^ zip)
        : FullName(fName),
          Address(adr),
          City(ct),
          State(ste),
          ZIPCode(zip)
    {
    }
  47. Save all
  48. Copy the following pictures to any folder somewhere on your computer (this is simply an example of preparing the pictures of cars you would include in your database application):
     
    BMW 335i Chevrolet Avalanche
    BMW: 335i Chevrolet Avalanche
    Mazda Miata
    Honda Accord Mazda Miata
    Chevrolet Aveo Ford E150XL
    Chevrolet Aveo Ford E150XL
    Buick LaCrosse Honda Civic
    Buick Lacrosse Honda Civic
    Ford F-150 Mazda Mazda5
    Ford F-150 Mazda Mazda5
    Volvo S40 Land Rover LR3
    Volvo S40 Land Rover LR3
  49. Return to your programming environment
  50. To add a new form to the application, in the Solution Explorer, right-click BethesdaCarRental1 -> Add -> New Item...
  51. Click Windows Forms if necessary and set the Name to CarEditor
  52. Click Add
  53. Design the form as follows: 
     
    Bethesda Car Rental - Car Editor
    Control Text Name Other Properties
    Label Text #    
    TextBox   txtTagNumber  
    Label Make:    
    TextBox   txtMake  
    Label Model:    
    TextBox   txtModel  
    Label Year:    
    TextBox   txtYear  
    Label Category:    
    ComboBox   cboCategories DropDownStyle: DropDownList
    Items: Economy
    Compact
    Standard
    Full Size
    Mini Van
    SUV
    Truck
    Van
    PictureBox   pbxCar SizeMode: Zoom
    CheckBox CD Player chkCDPlayer CheckAlign: MiddleRight
    CheckBox DVD Player chkDVDPlayer CheckAlign: MiddleRight
    Button Select Car Picture... btnSelectPicture  
    CheckBox Available chkAvailable CheckAlign: MiddleRight
    Label Picture Name lblPictureName  
    Button Submit btnSubmit  
    Button Close btnClose DialogResult: Cancel
    OpenFileDialog (Name): dlgOpen
    Title: Select Item Picture
    DefaultExt: jpg
    Filter: JPEG Files (*.jpg,*.jpeg)|*.jpg|GIF Files (*.gif)|*.gif|Bitmap Files (*.bmp)|*.bmp|PNG Files (*.png)|*.png
    Form     FormBorderStyle: FixedDialog
    MaximizeBox: False
    MinimizeBox: False
    ShowInTaskbar: False
  54. Double-click the Select Car Picture button and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnSelectPicture_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    				    System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        if (dlgPicture->ShowDialog() == System::Windows::Forms::DialogResult::OK)
        {
            lblPictureName->Text = dlgPicture->FileName;
    	pbxCar->Image = Image::FromFile(lblPictureName->Text);
        }
    }
  55. To add a new class to the project, in the Class View, right-click BethedaCarRental1 -> Add -> Class...
  56. Click C++ Click
  57. Click Add
  58. Set the Class Name to CCar
  59. Click Add
  60. Change the header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    using namespace System;
    
    [Serializable]
    public ref class CCar
    {
    public:
        String ^ Make;
        String ^ Model;
        int Year;
        String ^ Category;
        bool HasCDPlayer;
        bool HasDVDPlayer;
        bool IsAvailable;
    
    public:
        CCar(void);
        CCar(String ^ mk, String ^ mdl,
             int yr, String ^ cat, bool cd,
             bool  dvd, bool avl);
    };
  61. Change the source file as follows:
     
    #include "StdAfx.h"
    #include "Car.h"
    
    CCar::CCar(void)
        : Make(L""),
          Model(L""),
          Year(0),
          Category(L""),
          HasCDPlayer(false),
          HasDVDPlayer(false),
          IsAvailable(false)
    {
    }
    
    CCar::CCar(System::String ^mk, System::String ^mdl,
    		   int yr, System::String ^cat, bool cd,
    		   bool dvd, bool avl)
        : Make(mk),
          Model(mdl),
          Year(yr),
          Category(cat),
          HasCDPlayer(cd),
          HasDVDPlayer(dvd),
          IsAvailable(avl)
    {
    }
  62. To add a new class to the project, in the Class View, right-click BethesdaCarRental -> Add -> Class...
  63. Click C++ Class and click Add
  64. Set the Class Name to CRentalOrder
  65. Press Enter
  66. Change the header file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    using namespace System;
    
    [Serializable]
    public ref class CRentalOrder
    {
    public:
    	 String ^ EmployeeNumber;
            // The following flag will allow us to update/know whether
            // * The car is currently being used by the customer.
            //   That is, if the car has been picked up by the customer
            // * The customer has brought the car back
            String ^ OrderStatus;
            // Because every car has a tag number
            // and that tag number will not change
            // during the lifetime of a car (while the car remains with our
    	// car rental company, we will 
            // use only the tag number here.
            // The other pieces of information will 
            // be retrieved from the list of cars
            String ^ CarTagNumber;
            // We will identify the customer by the number
            // and the name on his or her driver's license
            String ^ CustomerDrvLicNbr;
            String ^ CustomerName;
            // Although he or she may keep the same driver's 
            // license number for a lifetime, a customer who 
            // rents cars at different times with this company 
    	// over months or years may have different addresses.
            // Therefore, although we will primarily retrieve the 
            // customer's address from the list of customers,
            // we will give the clerk the ability to change this 
            // information on a rental order. This means that the 
            // same customer could have different information on 
            // different rental orders.
    	// For this reason, each rental order will its own set
    	// of these pieces of information
            String ^ CustomerAddress;
            String ^ CustomerCity;
            String ^ CustomerState;
            String ^ CustomerZIPCode;
            String ^ CarCondition;
            String ^ TankLevel;
            // This information will be entered when the car is being rented
            int MileageStart;
            // This information will be entered when the car is brought back
            int MileageEnd;
            // This information will be entered when the car is being rented
            DateTime DateStart;
            // This information will be entered when the car is brought back
            DateTime DateEnd;
            int Days;
            // This information will be entered when the car is being rented
            double RateApplied;
            // This calculation should occur when the car is brought back
            double SubTotal;
            double TaxRate;
            double TaxAmount;
            double OrderTotal;
    
    public:
    	CRentalOrder(void);
    };
  67. To add a new form to the project, in the Solution Explorer, right-click BethesdaCarRenat1 -> Add -> New Item...
  68. Click Windows Form
  69. Set the Name to OrderProcessing
  70. Press Enter
  71. Design the form as follows:
     
    Rental Orders
    Control Text Name Other Properties
    Label Processed By:   AutoSize: False
    BackColor: Gray
    BorderStyle: FixedSingle
    ForeColor: White
    TextAlign: MiddleLeft
    Label Employee #:    
    MaskedTextBox   txtEmployeeNumber Mask: 00-000
    Label Employee Name:    
    TextBox   txtEmployeeName  
    Label Processed For   AutoSize: False
    BackColor: Gray
    BorderStyle: FixedSingle
    ForeColor: White
    TextAlign: MiddleLeft
    Label Driver's Lic #:    
    TextBox   txtDrvLicNumber  
    Label Cust Name:    
    TextBox   txtCustomerName  
    Label Address:    
    TextBox   txtCustomerAddress  
    Label City:    
    TextBox   txtCustomerCity  
    Label State:    
    ComboBox   cbxCustomerStates DropDownStyle: DropDownList
    Sorted: True
    Items: AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, HI, ID, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY
    Label ZIP Code    
    TextBox   txtCustomerZIPCode  
    Label Car Selected   AutoSize: False
    BackColor: Gray
    BorderStyle: FixedSingle
    ForeColor: White
    TextAlign: MiddleLeft
    Label Tag Number:    
    TextBox   txtTagNumber  
    Label Car Condition:    
    ComboBox   cbxCarConditions Sorted: True
    Items:
    Needs Repair
    Drivable
    Excellent
    Label Make:    
    TextBox   txtMake  
    Label Model:    
    TextBox   txtModel  
    Label Year:    
    TextBox   txtCarYear  
    label Tank Level:    
    ComboBox   cbxTankLevels Empty
    1/4 Empty
    1/2 Full
    3/4 Full
    Full
    Label Mileage Start:    
    TextBox   txtMileageStart TextAlign: Right
    Label Mileage End:    
    TextBox   txtMileageEnd TextAlign: Right
    Label Order Timing   AutoSize: False
    BackColor: Gray
    BorderStyle: FixedSingle
    ForeColor: White
    TextAlign: MiddleLeft
    Label Start Date:    
    DateTimePicker   dtpStartDate  
    Label End Date:    
    DateTimePicker   dtpEndDate  
    Label Days:    
    TextBox 0 txtDays TextAlign: Right
    Label Order Status    
    ComboBox   cbxOrderStatus Items:
    Car On Road
    Car Returned
    Order Reserved
    Label Order Evaluation   AutoSize: False
    BackColor: Gray
    BorderStyle: FixedSingle
    ForeColor: White
    TextAlign: MiddleLeft
    Label Rate Applied:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtRateApplied TextAlign: Right
    Button Rental Rates btnRentalRates  
    Label Sub-Total:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtSubTotal TextAlign: Right
    Button Calculate btnCalculate  
    Label Tax Rate:    
    TextBox 7.75 txtTaxRate TextAlign: Right
    Label %    
    Button Save btnSave  
    Label Tax Amount:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtTaxAmount TextAlign: Right
    Button Print... btnPrint  
    Label Order Total:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtOrderTotal TextAlign: Right
    Button Print Preview... btnPrintPreview  
    Label Receipt #:    
    TextBox 0 txtReceiptNumber  
    Button Open btnOpen  
    Button New Rental Order/Reset btnNewRentalOrder  
    Button Close btnClose  
  72. On the Order Processing form, double-click the Start Date date time picker control
  73. Implement the event as follows:
     
    System::Void dtpStartDate_ValueChanged(System::Object^  sender, 
    					System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        dtpEndDate->Value = dtpStartDate->Value;
    }
  74. Return to the Order Processing form and double-click the End Date control
  75. Implement its Click event as follows:
     
    // This event approximately evaluates the number of days as a
    // difference between the end date and the starting date
    System::Void dtpEndDate_ValueChanged(System::Object^  sender, 
    					System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        int days;
    
        DateTime dteStart = this->dtpStartDate->Value;
        DateTime dteEnd = this->dtpEndDate->Value;
    
        // Let's calculate the difference in days
        TimeSpan tme = dteEnd - dteStart;
        days = tme.Days;
    
        // If the customer returns the car the same day, 
        // we consider that the car was rented for 1 day
        if (days == 0)
            days = 1;
    
        txtDays->Text = days.ToString();
        // At any case, we will let the clerk specify the actual number of days
    }
  76. Scroll up on the document
  77. Include the header file for the RentalRates:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "RentalRates.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    using namespace System::ComponentModel;
    using namespace System::Collections;
    using namespace System::Windows::Forms;
    using namespace System::Data;
    using namespace System::Drawing;
  78. Return to the Order Processing form and double-click the Rental Rates button
  79. Implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnRentalRates_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    				  System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        RentalRates ^ wndRates = gcnew RentalRates;
        wndRates->Show();
    }
  80. Return to the Order Processing form and double-click the Calculate button
  81. Implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnCalculate_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    				System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        int    Days = 0;
        double RateApplied = 0.00;
        double SubTotal = 0.00;
        double TaxRate = 0.00;
        double TaxAmount = 0.00;
        double OrderTotal = 0.00;
    
        try
        {
            Days = int::Parse(this->txtDays->Text);
        }
        catch(FormatException ^)
        {
            MessageBox::Show(L"Invalid Number of Days");
        }
    
        try
        {
            RateApplied = double::Parse(txtRateApplied->Text);
        }
        catch(FormatException ^)
        {
            MessageBox::Show(L"Invalid Amount for Rate Applied");
        }
    
        SubTotal = Days * RateApplied;
        txtSubTotal->Text = SubTotal.ToString(L"F");
    
        try
        {
            TaxRate = double::Parse(txtTaxRate->Text);
        }
        catch(FormatException ^)
        {
            MessageBox::Show(L"Invalid Tax Rate");
        }
    
        TaxAmount = SubTotal * TaxRate / 100;
        txtTaxAmount->Text = TaxAmount.ToString(L"F");
    
        OrderTotal = SubTotal + TaxAmount;
        txtOrderTotal->Text = OrderTotal.ToString(L"F");
    }
  82. Return to the Order Processing form
  83. From the Printing section of the Toolbox, click PrintDocument and click the form
  84. In the Properties window, set its (Name) to docPrint and press Enter
  85. Under the form, double-click docPrint and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void docPrint_PrintPage(System::Object^  sender, 
    	System::Drawing::Printing::PrintPageEventArgs^  e)
    {
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 2), 80, 90, 750, 90);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 80, 93, 750, 93);
    
        String ^ strDisplay = L"Bethesda Car Rental";
        System::Drawing::Font ^ fntString = 
    		gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 28,
                            FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(strDisplay, fntString,
                            Brushes::Black, 240, 100);
    
        strDisplay = L"Car Rental Order";
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 22,
                            FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(strDisplay, fntString,
                            Brushes::Black, 320, 150);
    
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 80, 187, 750, 187);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 2), 80, 190, 750, 190);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12,
                    FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Receipt #:  ", fntString,
                    Brushes::Black, 100, 220);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12,
                    FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtReceiptNumber->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 220);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 100, 240, 380, 240);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12,
                    FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Processed By:  ", fntString,
                    Brushes::Black, 420, 220);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12,
                    FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtEmployeeName->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 550, 220);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 420, 240, 720, 240);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
    
        e->Graphics->FillRectangle(Brushes::Gray,
    			 Rectangle(100, 260, 620, 20));
        e->Graphics->DrawRectangle(Pens::Black,
    			 Rectangle(100, 260, 620, 20));
    
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Customer", fntString,
                                      Brushes::White, 100, 260);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Driver's License #: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 100, 300);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Name: ", fntString,
                                     Brushes::Black, 420, 300);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtDrvLicNumber->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 300);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtCustomerName->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 540, 300);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 100, 320, 720, 320);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Address: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 100, 330);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtCustomerAddress->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 330);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				100, 350, 720, 350);
    
        strDisplay = txtCustomerCity->Text+ L" " +
                             cbxCustomerStates->Text+ L" " +
                             txtCustomerZIPCode->Text;
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman",
     		12, FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(strDisplay, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 360);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				260, 380, 720, 380);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    				FontStyle::Bold);
    
        e->Graphics->FillRectangle(Brushes::Gray,
    		Rectangle(100, 410, 620, 20));
        e->Graphics->DrawRectangle(Pens::Black,
    		Rectangle(100, 410, 620, 20));
    
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Car Information", fntString,
                                      Brushes::White, 100, 410);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Tag #: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 100, 450);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtTagNumber->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 450);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    			100, 470, 380, 470);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Year: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 420, 450);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtCarYear->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 530, 450);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				420, 470, 720, 470);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Make: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 100, 480);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtMake->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 480);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				100, 500, 380, 500);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Model: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 420, 480);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtModel->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 530, 480);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				420, 500, 720, 500);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Car Condition: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 100, 510);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(cbxCarConditions->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 510);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				100, 530, 380, 530);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Tank Level: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 420, 510);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(cbxTankLevels->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 530, 510);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				420, 530, 720, 530);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Mileage Start:", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 100, 540);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtMileageStart->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 260, 540);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1), 
    				100, 560, 380, 560);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Mileage End:", fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 420, 540);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    				FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtMileageEnd->Text, fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 530, 540);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			420, 560, 720, 560);
    
        e->Graphics->FillRectangle(Brushes::Gray,
    			 Rectangle(100, 590, 620, 20));
        e->Graphics->DrawRectangle(Pens::Black,
    			 Rectangle(100, 590, 620, 20));
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Order Timing Information", fntString,
                              Brushes::White, 100, 590);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Start Date:", fntString,
                               Brushes::Black, 100, 620);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(dtpStartDate->Value.ToString(L"D"),
    			  fntString, Brushes::Black, 260, 620);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			100, 640, 720, 640);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"End Date:", fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 100, 650);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(dtpEndDate->Value.ToString(L"D"), fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 260, 650);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			100, 670, 520, 670);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Days:", fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 550, 650);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtDays->Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 640, 650);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			550, 670, 720, 670);
    
        e->Graphics->FillRectangle(Brushes::Gray,
    			Rectangle(100, 700, 620, 20));
        e->Graphics->DrawRectangle(Pens::Black,
    			 Rectangle(100, 700, 620, 20));
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Order Evaluation", fntString,
                              Brushes::White, 100, 700);
    
        StringFormat ^ fmtString = gcnew StringFormat;
        fmtString->Alignment = StringAlignment::Far;
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Rate Applied:", fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 100, 740);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtRateApplied->Text, fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 300, 740, fmtString);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			100, 760, 380, 760);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Tax Rate:", fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 420, 740);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtTaxRate->Text, fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 640, 740, fmtString);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"%", fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 640, 740);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			420, 760, 720, 760);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Sub-Total:", fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 100, 770);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtSubTotal->Text, fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 300, 770, fmtString);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			100, 790, 380, 790);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Tax Amount:", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 420, 770);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtTaxAmount->Text, fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 640, 770, fmtString);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			420, 790, 720, 790);
    
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Bold);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(L"Order Total:", fntString,
                                      Brushes::Black, 420, 800);
        fntString = gcnew System::Drawing::Font(L"Times New Roman", 12, 
    					FontStyle::Regular);
        e->Graphics->DrawString(txtOrderTotal->Text, fntString,
                              Brushes::Black, 640, 800, fmtString);
        e->Graphics->DrawLine(gcnew Pen(Color::Black, 1),
    			420, 820, 720, 820);
    }
  86. Return to the Order Processing form
  87. From the Printing section of the Toolbox, click PrintDialog and click the form
  88. In the Properties window, change its Name to dlgPrint
  89. Still in the Properties windows, set its Document property to docPrint
  90. On the Order Processing form, double-click the Print button and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnPrint_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    			    System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        if (dlgPrint->ShowDialog() == System::Windows::Forms::DialogResult::OK)
            docPrint->Print();
    }
  91. Return to the Order Processing form
  92. From the Printing section of the Toolbox, click PrintPreviewDialog and click the form
  93. In the Properties window, change its (Name) to dlgPrintPreview
  94. Still in the Properties windows, set its Document property to docPrint
  95. On the Order Processing form, double-click the Print Preview button
  96. Implement the event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnPrintPreview_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    				   System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        dlgPrintPreview->ShowDialog();
    }
  97. Access the Form1 form and design it as follows:
     
    Bethesda Car Rental
    Control Text Name
    Button Customers &Rental Orders btnRentalOrders
    Button C&ars btnCars
    Button &Employees btnEmployees
    Button &Customers btnCustomers
    Button C&lose btnClose
  98. Right-click the form and click View Code
  99. In the top section of the file, include the header files of the other forms:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "OrderProcessing.h"
    #include "CarEditor.h"
    #include "Employees.h"
    #include "Customers.h"
    
    namespace BethesdaCarRental1 {
    
    	using namespace System;
    	using namespace System::ComponentModel;
    	using namespace System::Collections;
    	using namespace System::Windows::Forms;
    	using namespace System::Data;
    	using namespace System::Drawing;
  100. Return to the Form1 form
  101. Double-click the Order Processing button and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnOrderProcessing_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    					System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        OrderProcessing ^ dlgOrder = gcnew OrderProcessing;
        dlgOrder->ShowDialog();
    }
  102. Return to the Form1 form
  103. Double-click the Car Editor button and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnCarEditor_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    				System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        CarEditor ^ dlgCars = gcnew CarEditor;
        dlgCars->ShowDialog();
    }
  104. Return to the Form1 form
  105. Double-click the Employees button and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnEmployees_Click(System::Object^  sender,
    			 System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        Employees ^ dlgEmployees = gcnew Employees;
        dlgEmployees->ShowDialog();
    }
  106. Return to the Form1 form
  107. Double-click the Customers button and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnCustomers_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    				System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        Customers ^ dlgCustomers = gcnew Customers;
        dlgCustomers->ShowDialog();
    }
  108. Return to the Form1 form
  109. Double-click the Close button and implement its event as follows:
     
    System::Void btnClose_Click(System::Object^  sender, 
    			    System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        Close();
    }
  110. Save all
 

 

 

Creating a Dictionary-Based Collection Class

To support dictionary-based lists, the .NET Framework provides various interfaces and classes. The interfaces allow you to create your own dictionary type of collection class. The classes allow you to directly create a dictionary-based list with an already built-in functionality. The NET Framework provides support for dictionary-based collections through two classes: Hashtable and SortedList. Both classes implement:

  • The IDictionary: This makes it possible to use the DictionaryEntry class to access a key/value item
  • The ICollection: This makes it possible to know the number of items in the list
  • The IEnumerable: This makes it possible to use the for each loop to enumerate the members of the list
  • And the ICloneable interfaces.

The Hashtable class implements the ISerializable interface, which makes it possible for the list to be serialized. Still, the SortedList class is marked with the Serializable attribute, which makes it possible to file process its list.

The .NET Framework also provides dictionary-types through generic classes. From the System::Collections::Generic namespace, to create a dictionary type of collection, you can use either the Dictionary, the SortedDictionary, or the SortedList class. The System::Collections::Generic::Dictionary class is equivalent to the System::Collections::Hashtable class. The System::Collections::Generic::SortedList class is equivalent to the System::CollectionsSortedList class. The System::Collections::Generic::SortedDictionary class is equivalent to the System::Collections::Generic::SortedList class with some differences in the way both classes deal with memory management.

If you decide to use either the System::Collections::Generic::Dictionary or the System::Collections::Generic::SortedList class, when declaring the variable, you must remember to specify the name of the class whose collection is being created.

Before using a dictionary-type of list, you can declare a variable using one of the constructors of the class. Here is an example:

#pragma once

#include <windows.h>

#using <System.dll>
#using <System.Drawing.dll>
#using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Drawing;
using namespace System::Collections;
using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

public ref class CExercise : public Form
{
private:
    void InitializeComponent();
    void Start(Object ^ sender, EventArgs ^ e);

public:
    CExercise();
};

CExercise::CExercise()
{
    InitializeComponent();
}

void CExercise::InitializeComponent()
{
    Text = L"Students";
    Size = Drawing::Size(340, 150);
    StartPosition = FormStartPosition::CenterScreen;
    Load += gcnew EventHandler(this, &CExercise::Start);
}

void CExercise::Start(Object ^ sender, EventArgs ^ e)
{
    Hashtable ^ Students = gcnew Hashtable;
}

int APIENTRY WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
					 LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{
    Application::Run(gcnew CExercise());
    return 0;
}

In this case, the primary list would be empty.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Creating a Dictionary Variable

  1. In the Solution Explorer, right CarEditor and click View Code
  2. Change the top section of the file as follows:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "Car.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    using namespace System::ComponentModel;
    using namespace System::Collections;
    using namespace System::Collections::Generic;
    using namespace System::Windows::Forms;
    using namespace System::Data;
    using namespace System::Drawing;
    using namespace System::IO;
    using namespace System::Runtime::Serialization::Formatters::Binary;
    
    namespace BethesdaCarRental1 {
    
    	/// <summary>
    	/// Summary for CarEditor
    	///
    	/// WARNING: If you change the name of this class, you will need to change the
    	///          'Resource File Name' property for the managed resource compiler tool
    	///          associated with all .resx files this class depends on.  Otherwise,
    	///          the designers will not be able to interact properly with localized
    	///          resources associated with this form.
    	/// </summary>
    	public ref class CarEditor : public System::Windows::Forms::Form
    	{
            Dictionary<String ^, CCar ^> ^ lstCars;
    
    	public:
    		CarEditor(void)
    		{
    			InitializeComponent();
    			//
    			//TODO: Add the constructor code here
    			//
    		}
  3. Display the CarEditor form and double-click an unoccupied area of its body
  4. Implement the Load event as follows:
     
    System::Void CarEditor_Load(System::Object^  sender, 
    			    System::EventArgs^  e)
    {
        CCar ^ vehicle = gcnew CCar;
        BinaryFormatter ^ bfmCars = gcnew BinaryFormatter;
    
        // This is the file that holds the list of items
        String ^ FileName = L"C:\\Bethesda Car Rental\\Cars.crs";
        lblPictureName->Text = L".";
    
        if( File::Exists(FileName))
        {
            FileStream ^ stmCars = gcnew FileStream(FileName,
                                                    FileMode::Open,
                                                    FileAccess::Read,
                                                    FileShare::Read);
            try {
                // Retrieve the list of cars
                lstCars  =
    		 dynamic_cast<Dictionary<String ^, CCar ^> ^>
    			(bfmCars->Deserialize(stmCars));
            }
            finally
            {
                stmCars->Close();
            }
        }
        else
            lstCars = gcnew Dictionary<String ^, CCar ^>;
    }
  5. Display the Order Processing form
  6. Right-click the Order Processing form and click View Code
  7. Make the following changes:
     
    #pragma once
    
    #include "RentalRates.h"
    #include "RentalOrder.h"
    #include "Customer.h"
    #include "Employee.h"
    #include "Car.h"
    
    using namespace System;
    using namespace System::ComponentModel;
    using namespace System::Collections;
    using namespace System::Collections::Generic;
    using namespace System::Windows::Forms;
    using namespace System::Data;
    using namespace System::Drawing;
    using namespace System::IO;
    using namespace System::Runtime::Serialization::Formatters::Binary;
    
    namespace BethesdaCarRental1 {
    
    	/// <summary>
    	/// Summary for OrderProcessing
    	///
    	/// WARNING: If you change the name of this class, you will need to change the
    	///          'Resource File Name' property for the managed resource compiler tool
    	///          associated with all .resx files this class depends on.  Otherwise,
    	///          the designers will not be able to interact properly with localized
    	///          resources associated with this form.
    	/// </summary>
    	public ref class OrderProcessing : public System::Windows::Forms::Form
    	{
    	private:		
            int ReceiptNumber;
    System::Collections::Generic::SortedList<int, CRentalOrder ^> ^ lstRentalOrders;
    
    	public:
    		OrderProcessing(void)
    		{
    			InitializeComponent();
    			//
    			//TODO: Add the constructor code here
    			//
    		}
  8. Save all
 
 
   
 

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