Home

Introduction to Transact-SQL Functions

   

Functions Fundamentals

 

Introduction

A function is like a method in C#, except that a function does not belong to a class. As seen in C#, a function is a relatively small task that should be performed aside but can be accessed any time to give a result. In Transact-SQL, a function is considered an object. Based on this, you must create a function and execute it before using it. The function then becomes part of a database.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Introducing Functions

  1. Start Microsoft Visual Studio
  2. Create a Windows Forms Application named TriStateUtilityCompany1
  3. Design the form as follows:
     
    Functions
    Control Text Name Other Properties
    Label Customer Name    
    TextBox   txtCustomerName  
    Label Counter: ___________    
    Label Last Month:    
    TextBox   txtLastMonth TextAlign: Right
    Label This Month:    
    TextBox   txtThisMonth TextAlign: Right
    Label Consumption:    
    TextBox   txtConsumption TextAlign: Right
    Button Evaluate btnEvaluate  
    Label Invoice: ___________    
    Label Amount Due:    
    TextBox   txtAmountDue TextAlign: Right
    Label Database: _________    
    Button Database btnDatabase  
    Button Close btnClose  
  4. Double-click the Database button and implement its event as follows:
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.ComponentModel;
    using System.Data;
    using System.Drawing;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Windows.Forms;
    using System.Data.SqlClient;
    
    namespace TriStateUtilityCompany1
    {
        public partial class Form1 : Form
        {
    	public Form1()
    	{
    	    InitializeComponent();
    	}
    
    	private void btnDatabase_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    	{
    	    string strConnection =
    	        "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=yes";
    
    	    using (SqlConnection connection = 
    		new SqlConnection(strConnection))
    	    {
    	        SqlCommand command =
    		    new SqlCommand("CREATE DATABASE UtilityCompany1;",
    				   connection);
    
    		connection.Open();
    	    	command.ExecuteNonQuery();
    
    	        MessageBox.Show("A database named \"UtilityCompany1\" has been created.");
    	    }
            }
        }
    }
  5. Return to the form and double-click the Close button
  6. Implement the event as follows:
    private void btnClose_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        Close();
    }
  7. Execute the application
  8. Click the Database button
  9. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Function Creation Fundamentals

There are various ways you can create a function:

  • In the Server Explorer, expand the connection to the database that will own the function. Right-click Functions, position the mouse on Add New, and click Scalar-Valued Function:

    Scalar-Valued Function

  • You can open a new empty query window and start typing your code in it
  • Write the code of a function and pass it to a command

In Transact-SQL, the primary formula of creating a function is:

CREATE FUNCTION FunctionName()

The Name of a Function

We mentioned already that, in SQL, a function was created as an object. As such, it must have a name. In our lessons, here are the rules we will use to name our functions:

  • The name of a function will resemble an action. An example is calculate
  • A name will start with either an underscore or a letter. Examples are _n, act, or Perform
  • After the first character as an underscore or a letter, the name will have combinations of underscores, letters, and digits. Examples are _n24 or act_52_t
  • A name will not include special characters such as !, @, #, $, %, ^, &, or *
  • We will avoid using spaces in a name
  • If the name is a combination of words, each word will start in uppercase. Examples are DoSomething, _CreateStudentsRecords, Get_Age, or _Calculate_Volume_Area

Returning a Value From a Function

Like a method in C#, a function can return or produce a result. When creating a function, you must specify the type of value it must return. To provide this information, after the name of the function, type the RETURNS keyword followed by a definition for a data type. Here is a simple example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition()
RETURNS Decimal(6,3)

After specifying the type of value the function would return, you can create a body for the function. While in C# the body of a function starts with {, in SQL, the body starts with the BEGIN keyword. The body of a function closes with the END keyword, equivalent to } in C#. Here is an example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition()
RETURNS Decimal(6,3)
BEGIN

END

Optionally, you can type the AS keyword before the BEGIN keyword:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition()
RETURNS Decimal(6,3)
AS
BEGIN

END

Between the BEGIN and END keywords, you can define the assignment the function must perform. After performing this assignment, just before the END keyword, you must specify the value that the function returns. This is done by typing the RETURN keyword followed by an expression. A sample formula is:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition()
RETURNS Decimal(6,3)
AS
BEGIN
    RETURN Expression
END

Here is an example

CREATE FUNCTION GetFullName()
RETURNS varchar(100)
AS
BEGIN
	RETURN 'Doe, John'
END

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Creating a Function

  1. Change the code of the Database button as follows:
    private void btnDatabase_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        string strConnection =
    		"Data Source=(local);" +
    		"Database='UtilityCompany1';" +
    		"Integrated Security=yes;";
        string CreateFunction = "CREATE FUNCTION EvaluateInvoice() " +
    			    "RETURNS Decimal(8, 2) " +
    			    "AS " +
    			    "BEGIN " +
    			    "    RETURN 8.50 " +
    			    "END;";
    
        using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
        {
    	SqlCommand command =
    	    new SqlCommand(CreateFunction, connection);
    
    	connection.Open();
    	command.ExecuteNonQuery();
    
    	MessageBox.Show(
    	    "A function named \"EvaluateInvoice\" has been created.");
        }
    }
  2. Execute the application
  3. To actually create the function, click the Database button
     
    Creating a Function
  4. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Function Calling

After a function has been created, you can use the value it returns. Like a method in C#, using a function is also referred to as calling it. To call a function, you must qualify its name. To do this, type the name of the database in which it was created, followed by the period operator, followed by dbo, followed by the period operator, followed by the name of the function, and its parentheses. The formula to use is:

DatabaseName.dbo.FunctionName()

Because a function returns a value, you can use that value as you see fit. For example, you can use SELECT to display the function's value in a query window. Here is an example that calls the above Addition() function:

SELECT Exercise.dbo.GetFullName();

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Calling a Function

  1. On the form, double-click the Evaluate button
  2. Implement the event as follows:
    private void btnEvaluate_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        string strConnection =
    	"Data Source=(local);" +
    	"Database='UtilityCompany1';" +
    	"Integrated Security=yes;";
        string ExecuteFunction = "SELECT dbo.EvaluateInvoice();";
    
        using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
        {
    	SqlCommand command =
    	    new SqlCommand(ExecuteFunction, connection);
    
    	connection.Open();
        	SqlDataReader rdr = command.ExecuteReader();
    
        	while (rdr.Read())
        	{
    	    txtAmountDue.Text = rdr[0].ToString();
            }
    
            rdr.Close();
        }
    }
  3. Execute the application and click the Evaluate button:
     
    Calling a Function
  4. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Function Maintenance

 

Introduction

Because a function in Transact-SQL is treated as an object, it may need maintenance. Some of the actions you would take include renaming, modifying, or deleting a function.

Renaming a Function

If you create a function and execute it in Microsoft SQL Server (Management Studio), it is stored in the Scalar-Valued Functions node with the name you gave it. If you want, you can change that name but keep the functionality of the function.

To rename a function, in the Object Explorer in Microsoft SQL Server, right-click it and click Rename. Type the desired new name and press Enter.

Deleting a Function

If you create a function and decide that you don't need it any more, you can delete it.

To delete a function in the Object Explorer, locate the function in the Functions section, right-click it and click Delete. The Delete Object dialog box would come up. If you still want to delete the function, click OK; otherwise, click Cancel.

To programmatically delete a function:

  • In a query window, type DROP FUNCTION followed by the name of the function and execute the statement
  • In the Object Explorer, right-click the name of the function, position the mouse on Script Function As, DROP To, and click New Query Editor Window
  • Open a new query window associated with the database that contains the function. Display the Templates Explorer and expand the Function node. Drag the Drop Function node and drop it in the empty query window

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Deleting a Function

  1. On the form, double-click the Database button and change its code as follows:
    private void btnDatabase_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        string strConnection =
    		"Data Source=(local);" +
    		"Database='UtilityCompany1';" +
    		"Integrated Security=yes;";
        string CreateFunction = "DROP FUNCTION EvaluateInvoice;";
    
        using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
        {
    	SqlCommand command =
    		new SqlCommand(CreateFunction, connection);
    
        	connection.Open();
    	command.ExecuteNonQuery();
    
      	MessageBox.Show("A function named \"EvaluateInvoice\" has been deleted.");
        }
    }
  2. Execute the application and click the Database button
     
    Deleting a Function
  3. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Modifying a Function

As mentioned already, in the body of the function, you define what the function is supposed to take care of. As a minimum, a function can return a simple number, typed on the right side of the RETURN keyword. Here is an example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition()
RETURNS int
BEGIN
    RETURN 1
END

You can also declare new variables in the body of the function to help in carrying the assignment. A variable declared in the body of a function is referred to as a local variable. Once such a variable has been declared, it can be used like any other variable. Here is an example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition()
RETURNS int
BEGIN
    DECLARE @Number1 int
    SET @Number1 = 588
    RETURN @Number1 + 1450
END

Function Arguments

 

Introduction

Like a method in C#, a function can be passed some arguments. Put it another way, when you create a function, instead of, or in addition to, local variables, you may want the code that will call the function to provide the values needed to perform the assignment. An external value that is provided to a function is called a parameter. A function can also take more than one parameter. Therefore, when you create a function, you also decide whether your function would take one or more parameters and what those parameters, if any, would be.

A Parameterized Function

We have already seen that a function's name is also followed by parentheses. If the function doesn't use any argument, its parentheses are left empty. If a function takes an argument, when you create the function, you must specify a name and the type of value of the parameters. The name of the parameter is created with the @ sign, like a variable as we saw in the previous lesson. Here is an example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition(@Number1 Decimal(6,2))

When a function takes a parameter, in the body of the function, you can use the parameter as if you knew its value, as long as you respect the type of that value. Here is an example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition(@Number1 Decimal(6,2))
RETURNS Decimal(6,2)
BEGIN
    RETURN @Number1 + 1450
END

Calling a Parameterized Function

When you call a function that takes one parameter, you must supply a value for that argument. To do this, type the value of the parameter in the parentheses of the function.

A Function With Various Arguments

Instead of only one parameter, you can also create a function that takes more than one parameter. In this case, separate the arguments in the parentheses of the function with a comma. Here is an example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition(@Number1 Decimal(6,2), @Number2 Decimal(6,2))

Once again, in the body of the function, you can use the parameters as if you already knew their value. You can also declare local variables and involve them with parameters as you see fit. Here is an example:

CREATE FUNCTION Addition(@Number1 Decimal(6,2),
			 @Number2 Decimal(6,2))
RETURNS Decimal(6,2)
BEGIN
    DECLARE @Result Decimal(6,2)
    SET @Result = @Number1 + @Number2
    RETURN @Result
END;
GO

When calling a function that takes more than one parameter, in the parentheses of the function, provide a value for each parameter, in the exact order they appear in the parentheses of the function. Here is an example:

SELECT Variables1.dbo.Addition(1450, 228);

You can also pass the names of already declared and initialized variables. Here is an example that calls the above function:

DECLARE @Nbr1 Decimal(6,2),
        @Nbr2 Decimal(6,2)
SET @Nbr1 = 4268.55
SET @Nbr2 =26.83
SELECT @Nbr1 As First,
       @Nbr2 As Second,
       Variables1.dbo.Addition(@Nbr1, @Nbr2) AS Result

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Creating and Calling a Function with Argument

  1. On the form, double-click the Database button and change its code as follows:
    private void btnDatabase_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        string strConnection =
    		"Data Source=(local);" +
    		"Database='UtilityCompany1';" +
    		"Integrated Security=yes;";
        // The following function is used to calculate the customer's next bill
        // Some of the empty spaces, not required,
        // are meant to make the code easier to read
        string CreateFunction = "CREATE FUNCTION EvaluateInvoice(@Counter int) " +
    			    "RETURNS decimal(6, 2) " +
    			    "AS " +
    			    "BEGIN " +
    			    "	 DECLARE @BaseCharge money, " +
    			    "	 	 @Counter0To50 int, " +
    			    "	 	 @Counter50To150 int, " +
    			    "	 	 @Counter150To200 int, " +
    			    "	 	 @CounterOver200 int, " +
    			    "	  	 @First50 decimal(6, 2), " +
    			    "	 	 @FiftyTo150 decimal(6, 2), " +
    			    "	 	 @OneFiftyTo200 decimal(6, 2) ," +
    			    "	 	 @Over200 decimal(6, 2), " +
    			    "	 	 @TotalCharge money; " +
    
    			    "	 SET @BaseCharge = 8.50; " +
    			    "	 SET @Counter0To50 = 0; " +
    			    "	 SET @Counter50To150 = 0; " +
    			    "	 SET @Counter150To200 = 0; " +
    			    "	 SET @CounterOver200 = 0; " +
    			    "	 SET @First50 = 0.00; " +
    			    "	 SET @FiftyTo150 = 0.00; " +
    			    "	 SET @OneFiftyTo200 = 0.00; " +
    			    "	 SET @Over200 = 0.00; " +
    			    "	 SET @TotalCharge = 0.00; " +
    
    			    "	 IF @Counter <= 50 " +
    			    "	     BEGIN" +
    			    "	 	SET @Counter0To50 = @Counter; " +
    			    "	 	SET @Counter50To150 = 0; " +
    			    "	 	SET @Counter150To200 = 0; " +
    			    "	 	SET @CounterOver200 = 0; " +
    			    "	     END;" +
    
    			    "	 IF (@Counter > 50) AND (@Counter <= 150) " +
    			    "	     BEGIN" +
    			    "	 	SET @Counter0To50 = 50; " +
    			    "	 	SET @Counter50To150 = @Counter - 50; " +
    			    " 		SET @Counter150To200 = 0; " +
    			    " 		SET @CounterOver200 = 0; " +
    			    " 	     END;" +
    
    			    "	 IF (@Counter > 150) AND (@Counter <= 300) " +
    			    "	     BEGIN " +
    			    "		SET @Counter0To50 = 50; " +
    			    " 		SET @Counter50To150 = 100; " +
    			    " 		SET @Counter150To200 = @Counter - 150; " +
    			    " 		SET @CounterOver200 = 0; " +
    			    " 	     END; " +
    
    			    " 	IF @Counter > 300 " +
    			    "        BEGIN " +
    			    " 		SET @Counter0To50 = 50; " +
    			    " 		SET @Counter50To150 = 100; " +
      			    " 		SET @Counter150To200 = 100; " +
    			    " 		SET @CounterOver200 = @Counter - 300; " +
    			    "        END;" +
    
    			    " 	SET @First50 = @Counter0To50 * 0.7675; " +
    			    " 	SET @FiftyTo150 = @Counter50To150 * 0.6248; " +
    			    " 	SET @OneFiftyTo200 = @Counter150To200 * 0.5825; " +
    			    " 	SET @Over200 = @CounterOver200 * 0.5037; " +
    
    		" SET @TotalCharge = @BaseCharge + @First50 + @FiftyTo150 + " +
    			    " 	@OneFiftyTo200 + @Over200; " +
    
    			    " 	RETURN @TotalCharge; " +
    			    "END;";
    
        using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
        {
     	SqlCommand command =
    		new SqlCommand(CreateFunction, connection);
    
    	connection.Open();
    	command.ExecuteNonQuery();
    
    	MessageBox.Show(
    	    "A function named \"EvaluateInvoice\" has been created.");
        }
    }
  2. Change the code of the Evaluate button as follows:
    private void btnEvaluate_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        int StartCounter = 0, EndCounter = 0;
        int Consumption;
    
        try
        {
    	StartCounter = int.Parse(txtCounterLastMonth.Text);
        }
        catch (FormatException)
        {
    	MessageBox.Show("Invalid Start Counter");
        }
    
        try
        {
    	EndCounter = int.Parse(txtCounterThisMonth.Text);
        }
        catch (FormatException)
        {
    	MessageBox.Show("Invalid End Counter");
        }
    
        if (StartCounter > EndCounter)
        {
    	MessageBox.Show("Invalid Values");
    	return;
        }
    
        Consumption = EndCounter - StartCounter;
    
        string strConnection =
    	"Data Source=(local);" +
    	"Database='UtilityCompany1';" +
    	"Integrated Security=yes;";
        string ExecuteFunction = "DECLARE @Difference int " +
    		"SET @Difference = " + Consumption.ToString() +
    		"SELECT dbo.EvaluateInvoice(@Difference);";
    
        using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
        {
    	SqlCommand command =
    		new SqlCommand(ExecuteFunction, connection);
    
    	connection.Open();
    	SqlDataReader rdr = command.ExecuteReader();
    
    	txtConsumption.Text = Consumption.ToString();
    
    	while (rdr.Read())
    		txtAmountDue.Text = rdr[0].ToString();
    
    	rdr.Close();
        }
    }
  3. Execute the application
  4. Click the Database button to create the function and click OK
  5. Enter some values for the start and end counter
  6. Click Evaluate. Here is an example:
     

    Creating and Calling a Function with Argument
  7. Close the form and return to your programming environment
  8. On the form, double-click the Database button and change the code of its event as follows:
    private void btnDatabase_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        string strConnection =
            "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=yes";
    
        using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
        {
            SqlCommand command =
    	    new SqlCommand("DROP DATABASE UtilityCompany1;",
    			   connection);
    
    	connection.Open();
        	command.ExecuteNonQuery();
    
            MessageBox.Show("The UtilityCompany1 database has been deleted.");
        }
    }
  9. Execute the application
  10. Click the Database button
  11. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Functions and Permissions

 

The Right to Create Functions

If you are working in a large environment with many users, you may not want all of them to add new functions to a database. In fact, you can control who has the ability to create functions and who can (only) execute them.

The primary permission of a function is named CREATE FUNCTION. To visually allow a user to create functions, access the Database Properties of the database. In the left frame, click Permissions. In the Users or Roles list, click the user. In the Permissions section, locate the Create Function row.

To programmatically grant the CREATE FUNCTION permission, type it after the GRANT keyword and specify the user after TO. Here is an example:

CREATE USER [Raymond Kouma]
FOR LOGIN rkouma;
GO
USE Exercise1;
GO
GRANT CREATE FUNCTION
TO rkouma;
GO

On the other hand, if you want to prevent a user from creating functions, use the DENY operator. Here is an example:

USE Exercise1;
GO
DENY CREATE FUNCTION
TO [Raymond Kouma];
GO

This would not allow a user to create a new function in the designated database:

Function Error

 

The Right to Execute Functions

If you work in a production environment, you may want to have only some developers creating functions while the other people can only execute or test the existing functions. To exercise that control, the database is equipped with a permission named EXECUTE that is associated with a function.

To programmatically grant the right to execute a function, use the following formula:

GRANT EXECUTE ON OBJECT::[Schema.]FunctionName TO User

Start with the GRANT EXECUTE ON OBJECT:: expression. If you are using a Transact-SQL built-in function, you can omit the schema. This is followed by the name of the function, TO, and the name of the user. Here is an example:

GRANT EXECUTE
ON OBJECT::dbo.Addition
TO [Raymond Kouma];
GO

On the other hand, to prevent a user from executing a function, deny the EXECUTE permission. Here is an example:

DENY EXECUTE
ON OBJECT::dbo.Addition
TO [Raymond Kouma];
GO

Introduction to Built-Functions

 

Overview

While your primary job as a database developer consists of creating tables, probably your second most important job is to assist your users with the various assignments they must perform on your application. One way you can assist is to use functions that perform otherwise complex tasks. To assist you, Transact-SQL provides a vast series of read-made functions. If you use one of those functions, they must be transmitted to the SQL interpreter. In some if not most cases, you can use classes of the .NET Framework. This library is equipped with a very expanded collection of classes that can assist you with almost any task. Since you may be familiar with some of the .NET Framework classes but not with Transact-SQL functions, we will review some of those here.

Because of their complexities, some values can be easily recognized or fixed. For example, a date such as January 6, 1995 is constant and can never change. This type of value is referred to as deterministic because it is always the same. In the same way, a time value such as 5 PM is constant and cannot change. There are other values that cannot be known in advance because they change based on some circumstances. For example, the starting date of the school year changes from one year to another but it always occurs. This means that, you know it will happen but you don't know the exact date. Such a value is referred to as non-deterministic.

To support determinism and non-determinism, Transact-SQL provides two broad categories of functions. A function that always returns the same or known value is referred to as deterministic. A function whose returned value may depend on a condition is referred to as non-deterministic.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Introducing Built-in Functions

  1. Create a new Windows Forms Application named Payroll
  2. From the Common Controls section of the Toolbox, add a Button to the form
  3. Double-click the button and implement its Click event as follows:
    private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        string strConnection =
    	"Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=yes";
    
        using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
        {
    	SqlCommand command =
    	    new SqlCommand("CREATE DATABASE Payroll;", connection);
    
    	connection.Open();
    	command.ExecuteNonQuery();
    
    	MessageBox.Show("A database named \"Exercise4\" has been created.");
        }
    }
  4. Execute the application
  5. Click the button
  6. Click OK
  7. Close the form and return to your programming environment
  8. Delete the button

Casting a Value

In most cases, a value the user submits to your database is primarily considered a string. This is convenient if that's what you are expecting. If the value the user provides must be treated as something other than a string, for example, if the user provides a number, before using such a value, you should first convert it to the appropriate type, that is, from a string to the expected type.

In a C# application, to convert a value, you can use either the Convert class or a Parse() method. In Transact-SQL, to convert a value, you can use either the CAST() or the CONVERT() function. The  syntax of the CAST() function is:

CAST(Expression AS DataType)

The Expression is the value that needs to be cast. The DataType factor is the type of value you want to convert the Expression to. The DataType can be one of those we reviewed in Lesson 4.

In the following example, two variables are declared and initialzed as strings. Because they must be involved in a multiplication, each is converted to a Decimal type.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Casting a Value

  1.  Design the form as follows:
     
    Casting a Value
    Control Text Name Other Properties
    Label Hourly Salary:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtHourlySalary TextAlign: Right
    Label Weekly Hours:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtWeeklyHours TextAlign: Right
    Button Calculate btnCalculate  
    Label Weekly Salary:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtWeeklySalary TextAlign: Right
    Button Close btnClose  
  2. Double-click the Calculate button
  3. Return to the form and double-click the Close button
  4. Implement the events as follows:
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.ComponentModel;
    using System.Data;
    using System.Drawing;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Windows.Forms;
    using System.Data.SqlClient;
    
    namespace Exernamespace Payroll10
    {
        public partial class Exercise : Form
        {
    	public Exercise()
    	{
    	    InitializeComponent();
    	}
    
        	private void btnCalculate_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    	{
    	    double HourlySalary = 0.00, WeeklyHours = 0.00;
    
    	    try {
    		HourlySalary = double.Parse(txtHourlySalary.Text);
    	    }
    	    catch(FormatException)
    	    {
    		MessageBox.Show("Invalid Weekly Hours");
    	    }
    
    	    try {
    	    	WeeklyHours = double.Parse(txtWeeklyHours.Text);
    	    }
    	    catch(FormatException)
    	    {
    	    	MessageBox.Show("Invalid Weekly Hours");
    	    }
    
    	    string strConnection =
    		"Data Source=(local);" +
    		"Database='UtilityCompany1';" +
    		"Integrated Security=yes;";
    	    string ExecuteFunction =
    		"DECLARE @StrSalary Varchar(10), " +
    		"@StrHours Varchar(6), " +
    		"@WeeklySalary Decimal(6,2) " +
    		"SET @StrSalary = '" + HourlySalary.ToString() + "'; " +
    		"SET @StrHours = '" + WeeklyHours.ToString() + "'; " +
    		"SET @WeeklySalary = CAST(@StrSalary As Decimal(6,2)) * " +
    		"CAST(@StrHours As Decimal(6,2)); " +
    		"SELECT @WeeklySalary;";
    
    	    using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(strConnection))
    	    {
    	    	SqlCommand command =
    			new SqlCommand(ExecuteFunction, connection);
    
    	    	connection.Open();
    	    	SqlDataReader rdr = command.ExecuteReader();
    
    	    	while (rdr.Read())
    	    	{
    		    txtWeeklySalary.Text = rdr[0].ToString();
    	    	}
    
    	    	rdr.Close();
    	    }
        	}
    
        	private void btnClose_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        	{
    	    Close();
        	}
        }
    }
  5. Execute the application
  6. Enter a decimal value for the side and click the Calculate button. Here is an example:
     
    Casting a Value
  7. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Converting a Value

Like CAST(), the CONVERT() function is used to convert a value. Unlike CAST(), CONVERT can be used to convert a value from its original type into a non-similar type. For example, you can use CONVERT to cast a number into a string and vice-versa.

The  syntax of the CONVERT() function is:

CONVERT(DataType [ ( length ) ] , Expression [ , style ])

The first argument must be a known data type, such as those we reviewed in Lesson 23. If you are converting the value into a string (varchar, nvarchar, char, nchar) or a binary type, you should specify the number of allowed characters the data type's own parentheses. As reviewed for the CAST() function, the Expression is the value that needs to be converted.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Converting a Value

  1. Start a new Windows Forms Application named Square10
  2. Design the form as follows:
     
    Casting a Value
    Control Text Name Other Properties
    Label Side:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtSide TextAlign: Right
    Button Calculate btnCalculate  
    Label Perimeter:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtPerimeter TextAlign: Right
    Button Close btnClose  
    Label Area:    
    TextBox 0.00 txtArea TextAlign: Right
  3. Double-click the Calculate button
  4. Return to the form and double-click the Close button
  5. Implement the events as follows:
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.ComponentModel;
    using System.Data;
    using System.Drawing;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Windows.Forms;
    using System.Data.SqlClient;
    
    namespace Exercise1
    {
        public partial class Exercise : Form
        {
    	public Exercise()
    	{
    	    InitializeComponent();
    	}
    
        	private void btnCalculate_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    	{
    	    double dSide = 0.00;
    
    	    try {
    		dSide = double.Parse(txtSide.Text);
    	    }
    	    catch(FormatException)
    	    {
    		MessageBox.Show("Invalid Side Value");
    	    }
    
    	    string strConnection =
    		"Data Source=(local);" +
    		"Database='UtilityCompany1';" +
    		"Integrated Security=yes;";
    	    string ExecuteFunction =
    		"DECLARE @Side As Decimal(10,3), " +
    		"        @Perimeter As Decimal(10,3), " +
    		"        @Area As Decimal(10,3); " +
    		"SET     @Side = " + dSide.ToString() + "; " +
    		"SET     @Perimeter = @Side * 4; " +
    		"SET     @Area = @Side * @Side; " +
    		"SELECT CONVERT(varchar(10), @Perimeter, 10), " +
    		"       CONVERT(varchar(10), @Area, 10);";
    
    	    using (SqlConnection connection =
    		new SqlConnection(strConnection))
    	    {
    		SqlCommand command =
    			new SqlCommand(ExecuteFunction, connection);
    
    		connection.Open();
    		SqlDataReader rdr = command.ExecuteReader();
    
    		while (rdr.Read())
    		{
    		    txtPerimeter.Text = rdr[0].ToString();
    		    txtArea.Text = rdr[1].ToString();
    		}
    
    		rdr.Close();
    	    }
        	}
    
        	private void btnClose_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        	{
    	    Close();
        	}
        }
    }
  6. Execute the application
  7. Enter a decimal value for the side and click the Calculate button. Here is an example:
     
    Casting a Value
  8. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Exercises

 

Exercises

  1. Write a function named ProcessPayroll1 that takes the number of hours worked in a week. Then the function returns a value that represents overtime. If the employee worked less than 40 hours, there is no overtime. If the employee worked for more than 40 hours, the number over 40 is considered overtime
  2. Write a function named GetWeekdayName that, when given a date, can find and display the name of the week for that date
  3. Write a function named GetNumberDays that takes two dates and returns the number of days between them
  4. Write a function named AddNumberDays that takes a date and an integer, then it returns the date added that number
 

Previous Copyright © 2010-2011 C#Key Next