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.NET Framework Support for Exception Handling

 

A Review of .NET Exception Classes

 

Introduction

The .NET Framework provides various classes to handle almost any type of exception you can think of. There are so many of these classes that we can only mention the few that we will regularly use in our application.

There are two main ways you can use one of the classes of the .NET Framework. If you know for sure that a particular exception will be produced, pass its name to a catch() clause. You don't have to name the argument. Then, in the catch() section, display a custom message. The second option you have consists of using the throw keyword. We will study it later.

From now on, we will try to always indicate the type of exception that could be thrown if something goes wrong in a program.

The Format Exception

Everything the user types into an application using the keyboard is primarily a string and you must convert it to the appropriate type before using it. When you request a specific type of value from the user, after the user has typed it and you decide to convert it to the appropriate type, if your conversion fails, the program produces (we will use he word "throw") an error. The error is of from the FormatException class.

Here is a program that deals with a FormatException exception:

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
	double Number;

	try 
	{
		Number = double.Parse(textBox1.Text);

		textBox2.Text = (Number * 2).ToString();
	}
	catch(FormatException)
	{
		MessageBox.Show("You typed an invalid number");
	}
}
The FormatException exception
 

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Using the FormatException Class

  1. Open the GeorgetownCleaningServices1 application from the previous lesson
  2. Change the form's file as follows:
    private void btnProcess_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
               if (this.btnProcess.Text == "Process")
                {
                    this.Height = 408;
                    this.btnProcess.Text = "Reset";
                }
                else
                {
                    this.Height = 232;
                    this.txtCustomerName1.Text = "";
                    this.txtMM.Text = "1";
                    this.txtDD.Text = "1";
                    this.txtYYYY.Text = "2000";
                    this.txtQtyShirts.Text = "0";
                    this.txtQtyPants.Text = "0";
                    this.txtQtyOther.Text = "0";
                    this.txtSubTotalShirts.Text = "0.00";
                    this.txtSubTotalPants.Text = "0.00";
                    this.txtSubTotalOther.Text = "0.00";
    
                    this.btnProcess.Text = "Process";
                }
    
                // Request order information from the user
                CustomerName = this.txtCustomerName1.Text;
                mm = this.txtMM.Text;
                dd = this.txtDD.Text;
                yyyy = this.txtYYYY.Text;
    
                // Request the quantity of each category of items
                // Number of Shirts
                try
                {
                    NumberOfShirts = uint.Parse(this.txtQtyShirts.Text);
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you typed for the number of " +
                                    "shirts is not a valid number." +
                                    "\nPlease enter a natural number such " +
                                    "as 2 or 24 or even 248");
                }
    
                // Number of Pants
                try
                {
                    NumberOfPants = uint.Parse(this.txtQtyPants.Text);
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you typed for the number of " +
                                    "pair or pants is not a valid number." +
                                    "\nPlease enter a natural number such " +
                                    "as 2 or 24 or even 248");
                }
    
                // Number of Dresses
                try
                {
                    NumberOfOther = uint.Parse(this.txtQtyOther.Text);
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you typed for the number of " +
                                    "other items is not a valid number." +
                                    "\nPlease enter a natural number such " +
                                    "as 2 or 24 or even 248");
                }
    
                // Unit Prices of items
                try
                {
                    PriceOneShirt = decimal.Parse(this.txtUnitPriceShirts.Text);
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the unit price " +
                                  "of a shirt is not a recognizable currency " +
                                    "amount.\nOnly natural or decimal numbers " +
                                  "are allowed. Please consult the management " +
                                    "to know the valid prices.");
                }
                try
                {
                    PriceAPairOfPants =
    			decimal.Parse(this.txtUnitPricePants.Text);
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the unit price of " +
                                "a pair of pants is not a recognizable " +
                                "currency amount.\nOnly natural or decimal " +
                                "numbers are allowed. You can consult the " +
                                "management to find out about " +
                                "the allowable prices.");
                }
                try
                {
                    PriceOther = decimal.Parse(this.txtUnitPriceOther.Text);
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the unit " +
                                  "price of other items is not a valid amount." +
                                    "\nYou must enter only a natural or a " +
                                    "decimal number. For more information, " +
                                    "please consult the management to get " +
                                    "the right prices.");
                }
    
                // Perform the necessary calculations
                SubTotalShirts = NumberOfShirts * PriceOneShirt;
                SubTotalPants = NumberOfPants * PriceAPairOfPants;
                SubTotalOther = NumberOfOther * PriceOther;
    
                this.txtSubTotalShirts.Text = SubTotalShirts.ToString();
                this.txtSubTotalPants.Text = SubTotalPants.ToString();
                this.txtSubTotalOther.Text = SubTotalOther.ToString();
    
                // Calculate the "temporary" total of the order
                TotalOrder = SubTotalShirts + SubTotalPants + SubTotalOther;
    
                // Display the receipt
                this.txtCustomerName2.Text = CustomerName;
                this.txtOrderDate.Text = mm + "/" + dd + "/" + yyyy;
                this.txtTotalOrder.Text = TotalOrder.ToString();
    }
    
    private void btnTax_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
                // Get the tax rate
                try
                {
                    TaxRate = decimal.Parse(this.txtTaxRate.Text) / 100;
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered is not " +
                                    "recognized as a valid tax rate." +
                                    "\nA valid tax rate is a value " +
                                    "between 0 and 100.00" +
                                    "\nPlease try again.");
                }
    
                // Calculate the tax amount using a constant rate
                TaxAmount = TotalOrder * TaxRate;
                // Add the tax amount to the total order
                SalesTotal = TotalOrder + TaxAmount;
    
                this.txtTaxAmount.Text = TaxAmount.ToString("F");
                this.txtNetPrice.Text = SalesTotal.ToString("F");
    }
    
    private void btnDifference_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
                decimal AmountTended = 0.00M, Difference = 0.00M;
    
                // Request money for the order
                try
                {
                    AmountTended = decimal.Parse(this.txtAmountTended.Text);
                }
                catch(FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the amount " +
                                    "tended is not valid. Only natural or " +
                                    "decimal numbers are allowed." +
                                    "Please try again.");
                }
    
                // Calculate the difference owed to the customer
                // or that the customer still owes to the store
                Difference = AmountTended - SalesTotal;
    
                this.txtDifference.Text = Difference.ToString("F");
    }
  3. Execute the application and return to your programming environment

The Overflow Exception

A computer application receives, processes, and produces values on a regular basis as the program is running. To better manage these values, as we saw when studying variables and data types in Lesson 2, the compiler uses appropriate amounts of space to store its values. It is not unusual that either you the programmer or a user of your application provides an value that is beyond the allowed range based on the data type. For example, we saw that a byte uses 8 bits to store a value and a combination of 8 bits can store a number no more than 255. If you provide a value higher than 255 to be stored in a byte, you get an error. Consider the following program:

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
	byte NumberOfPages;

	NumberOfPages = byte.Parse(this.textBox1.Text);

	this.textBox2.Text = NumberOfPages.ToString();
}

When a value beyond the allowable range is asked to be stored in memory, the compiler produces (the verb is "throws" as we will learn soon) an error of the OverflowException class. Here is an example of running the program with a bad number:

As with the other errors, when this exception is thrown, you should take appropriate action.

The Argument Out of Range Exception

Once again, we know that a value is passed to the Parse() method of its data type for analysis. For a primitive data type, the Parse() method scans the string and if the string cannot be converted into a valid character or number, the compiler usually throws a FormatException exception as we saw above. Other classes such as DateTime also use a Parse() method to scan the value submitted to it. For example, if you request a date value from the user, the DateTime.Parse() method scans the string to validate it. In US English, Parse() expects the user to type a string in the form m/d/yy or mm/dd/yy or mm/dd/yyyy. Consider the following program:

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
	DateTime DateHired;

	DateHired = DateTime.Parse(this.textBox1.Text);

	this.textBox2.Text = DateHired.ToString();
}

If the user types a value that cannot be converted into a valid date, the compiler throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception. Here is an example of running the above program with an invalid date:

One way you can avoid this is to guide the user but still take appropriate actions, just in case this error is thrown.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Using an ArgumentOutOfRangeException Exception

  1. Right-click the form and click View Code
  2. Under the CustomerName variable, declare a variable named OrderTime of type DateTime
     
    namespace GeorgetownCleaningServices1
    {
        public partial class Form1 : Form
        {
            // Order Information
            string CustomerName;
            DateTime OrderDate;
    
            // Quantities of items
            uint NumberOfShirts;
            uint NumberOfPants;
            uint NumberOfOther;
  3. Change the Click event of the Process button as follows:
     
    private void btnProcess_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
                if (this.btnProcess.Text == "Process")
                {
                    this.Height = 408;
                    this.btnProcess.Text = "Reset";
                }
                else
                {
                    this.Height = 232;
                    this.txtCustomerName1.Text = "";
                    this.txtMM.Text = "1";
                    this.txtDD.Text = "1";
                    this.txtYYYY.Text = "2000";
                    this.txtQtyShirts.Text = "0";
                    this.txtQtyPants.Text = "0";
                    this.txtQtyOther.Text = "0";
                    this.txtSubTotalShirts.Text = "0.00";
                    this.txtSubTotalPants.Text = "0.00";
                    this.txtSubTotalOther.Text = "0.00";
    
                    this.btnProcess.Text = "Process";
                }
    
                // Request order information from the user
                CustomerName = this.txtCustomerName1.Text;
    
                try
                {
                    int mm, dd, yyyy;
                    mm = int.Parse(this.txtMM.Text);
                    dd = int.Parse(this.txtDD.Text);
                    yyyy = int.Parse(this.txtYYYY.Text);
                    OrderDate = new DateTime(yyyy, mm, dd);
                }
                catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The date you entered is not valid" +
                                    "- Please try again!");
                }
    
                . . . No Change
    
                // Display the receipt
                this.txtCustomerName2.Text = CustomerName;
                this.txtOrderDate.Text = OrderDate.ToString("D");
                this.txtTotalOrder.Text = TotalOrder.ToString();
            }
  4. Execute the application.
  5. To test it enter valid and invalid values for the controls. Here is an example:
     

    Georgetown Cleaning Services - Wrong Date Value

  6. Close the form and return to your programming environment

The Divide by Zero Exception

Division by zero is an operation to always avoid. It is so important that it is one of the most fundamental exceptions of the computer. It is addressed at the core level even by the Intel and AMD processors. It is also addressed by the operating systems at their level. It is also addressed by most, if not all, compilers. It is also addressed by most, if not, all libraries. This means that this exception is never welcomed anywhere. The .NET Framework also provides it own class to face this operation.

If an attempt to divide a value by 0, the compiler throws a DivideByZeroException exception. We will see an example later.

Techniques of Using Exceptions

 

Throwing an Exception

As mentioned above, the Exception class is equipped with a Message property that carried a message for the error that occurred. We also mentioned that the message of this property may not be particularly useful to a user. Fortunately, you can create your own message and pass it to the Exception. To be able to receive custom messages, the Exception class provides the following constructor:

public Exception(string message);

To use it, in the section that you are anticipating the error, type the throw keyword followed by a new instance of the Exception class using the constructor that takes a string. Here is an example:

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
        double Operand1, Operand2;
        double Result = 0.00;
        string Operator;
    
        try 
        {
	Operand1 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber1.Text);
	Operator = this.txtOperator.Text;
	Operand2 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber2.Text);

	if( Operator != "+" &&
	    Operator != "-" && 
	    Operator != "*" && 
	    Operator != "/" )
		throw new Exception(Operator);

	switch(Operator)
	{
	case "+":
		Result = Operand1 + Operand2;
		break;
	case "-":
		Result = Operand1 - Operand2;
		break;
	case "*":
		Result = Operand1 * Operand2;
		break;
	case "/":
		Result = Operand1 / Operand2;
		break;
	default:
		MessageBox.Show("Bad Operation");
		break;
	}

	this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
        }
        catch(Exception ex)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("Operation Error: " + ex.Message + " is not a valid operator");
        }
}
Calculator 1: Exception Handling
 

Catching Various Exceptions

In the above examples, when we anticipated some type of problem, we instructed the compiler to use our default catch section. We left it up to the compiler to find out when there was a problem and we provided a catch section to deal with it. A method with numerous or complex operations and requests can also produce different types of errors. With such a type of program, you should be able to face different problems and deal with them individually, each by its own kind. To do this, you can create different catch sections, each made for a particular error. The formula used would be:

try {
	// Code to Try
}
catch(Arg1)
{
	// One Exception
}
catch(Arg2)
{
	// Another Exception
}

The compiler would proceed in a top-down:

  1. Following the normal flow of the program, the compiler enters the try block
  2. If no exception occurs in the try block, the rest of the try block is executed
    If an exception occurs in the try block, the compiler registers the type of error that occurred. If there is a throw line, the compiler registers it also:
    1. The compiler gets out of the try section
    2. The compiler examines the first catch. If the first catch matches the thrown error, that catch executes and the exception handling routine may seize. If the first catch doesn’t match the thrown error, the compiler proceeds with the next catch
    3. The compiler checks the next match, if any and proceeds as in the first match. This continues until the compiler finds a catch that matches the thrown error
    4. If one of the catches matches the thrown error, its body executes. If no catch matches the thrown error, the compiler calls the Exception class and uses the default message

Multiple catches are written if or when a try block is expected to throw different types of errors. For example, in our calculator, we want to consider only the addition, the subtraction, the multiplication, and the division. It is also likely that the user may type one or two invalid numbers. This leads us to know that our program can produce at least two types of errors at this time. Based on this, we can address them using two catch clauses as follows:

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
        double Operand1, Operand2;
        double Result = 0.00;
        string Operator;

        try 
        {
	Operand1 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber1.Text);
	Operator = this.txtOperator.Text;
	Operand2 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber2.Text);

	if( Operator != "+" && Operator != "-" && Operator != "*" && Operator != "/" )
		throw new Exception(Operator);

	switch(Operator)
	{
	case "+":
		Result = Operand1 + Operand2;
		break;
	case "-":
		Result = Operand1 - Operand2;
		break;
	case "*":
		Result = Operand1 * Operand2;
		break;
	case "/":
		Result = Operand1 / Operand2;
		break;
	default:
		MessageBox.Show("Bad Operation");
		break;
	}

	this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
        }
        catch(FormatException)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("You type an invalid number. Please correct it");
        }
        catch(Exception ex)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("Operation Error: " + ex.Message +
			" is not a valid operator");
        }
}
Catching multiple exceptions

This program works fine as long as the user types two valid numbers and a valid arithmetic operator. Anything else, such an invalid number or an unexpected operator would cause an error to be thrown:

Obviously various bad things could happen when this program is running. Imagine that the user wants to perform a division. You need to tell the compiler what to do if the user enters the denominator as 0 (or 0.00). If this happens, one of the options you should consider is to display a message and get out. Fortunately, the .NET Framework provides the DivideByZeroException class to deal with an exception caused by division by zero. As done with the message passed to the Exception class, you can compose your own message and pass it to the DivideByZeroException(string message) constructor.

Exception is the parent of all exception classes. This corresponds to the three periods of a C++' catch(...) block. Therefore, if you write various catch blocks, the one that takes the Exception as argument should be the last.

Here is an example that catches two types of exceptions:

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
        double Operand1, Operand2;
        double Result = 0.00;
        string Operator;

        try 
       {
	Operand1 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber1.Text);
	Operator = this.txtOperator.Text;
	Operand2 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber2.Text);

	if( Operator != "+" && Operator != "-" && Operator != "*" && Operator != "/" )
		throw new Exception(Operator);

	switch(Operator)
	{
	case "+":
	        Result = Operand1 + Operand2;
	        break;
	case "-":
	        Result = Operand1 - Operand2;
	        break;
	case "*":
	        Result = Operand1 * Operand2;
	        break;
	case "/":
	        if( Operand2 == 0 )
		throw new DivideByZeroException("Division by zero is not allowed");
	        Result = Operand1 / Operand2;
	        break;
	default:
	        MessageBox.Show("Bad Operation");
	        break;
	}

	this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
        }
        catch(FormatException)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("You type an invalid number. Please correct it");
        }
        catch(DivideByZeroException ex)
        {
	MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
        }
        catch(Exception ex)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("Operation Error: " + ex.Message + " is not a valid operator");
        }
}

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Identifying the Thrown Exception

  1. To catch various exceptions, change the form's file as follows:
     
    private void btnProcess_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
                if (this.btnProcess.Text == "Process")
                {
                    this.Height = 408;
                    this.btnProcess.Text = "Reset";
                }
                else
                {
                    this.Height = 232;
                    this.txtCustomerName1.Text = "";
                    this.txtMM.Text = "1";
                    this.txtDD.Text = "1";
                    this.txtYYYY.Text = "2000";
                    this.txtQtyShirts.Text = "0";
                    this.txtQtyPants.Text = "0";
                    this.txtQtyOther.Text = "0";
                    this.txtSubTotalShirts.Text = "0.00";
                    this.txtSubTotalPants.Text = "0.00";
                    this.txtSubTotalOther.Text = "0.00";
    
                    this.btnProcess.Text = "Process";
                }
    
                // Request order information from the user
                CustomerName = this.txtCustomerName1.Text;
    
                try
                {
                    int mm, dd, yyyy;
                    mm = int.Parse(this.txtMM.Text);
                    dd = int.Parse(this.txtDD.Text);
                    yyyy = int.Parse(this.txtYYYY.Text);
                    OrderDate = new DateTime(yyyy, mm, dd);
                }
                // This exception is thrown if the user types a value that cannot
                // be converted into a valid number
                catch (FormatException ex)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("Error: " + ex.Message +
                        "\nThe value you entered " +
                        "is not a valid number");
                }
                // This exception is thrown if
    	    // the values that user had typed cannot
                // produce a valid date value
                catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The date you entered is not " +
    				"valid - Please try again!");
                }
    
                // Request the quantity of each category of items
                // Number of Shirts
                try
                {
                    NumberOfShirts = uint.Parse(this.txtQtyShirts.Text);
                }
                // This exception is thrown if the user typed a value that cannot
                // be recognized as a valid number
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you typed for the number of " +
                                    "shirts is not a valid number." +
                                    "\nPlease enter a natural number " +
    				"such as 2 or 24 or even 248");
                }
                // This exception is thrown if the user types a negative value
                catch (OverflowException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The number you typed is negative but " +
                        "we cannot accept a negative number of shirts");
                }
    
                // Number of Pants
                try
                {
                    NumberOfPants = uint.Parse(this.txtQtyPants.Text);
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you typed for the number of " +
                        "pair or pants is not a valid number." +
                        "\nPlease enter a natural number such " +
    		    "as 2 or 24 or even 248");
                }
                catch (OverflowException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The number you typed is negative but " +
                        "we cannot accept a negative number of shirts");
                }
    
                // Number of Dresses
                try
                {
                    NumberOfOther = uint.Parse(this.txtQtyOther.Text);
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you typed for the number of " +
                                    "other items is not a valid number." +
                                    "\nPlease enter a natural number such " +
                                    "as 2 or 24 or even 248");
                }
                catch (OverflowException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The number you typed is negative but " +
                        "we cannot accept a negative number of shirts");
                }
    
                // Unit Prices of items
                try
                {
                    PriceOneShirt = decimal.Parse(this.txtUnitPriceShirts.Text);
                    if (PriceOneShirt < 0)
                        throw new Exception("Negative numbers are not allowed " +
                                            "for the price of a shirt");
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the unit price " +
                                    "of a shirt is not a recognizable currency " +
                                    "amount.\nOnly natural or decimal numbers " +
                                    "are allowed. Please consult the management " +
                                    "to know the valid prices.");
                }
                catch (Exception ex)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
                }
    
                try
                {
                    PriceAPairOfPants = decimal.Parse(this.txtUnitPricePants.Text);
                    if (PriceAPairOfPants < 0)
                        throw new Exception("Negative numbers are not allowed " +
                                            "for the price of a pair of pants");
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the unit price of " +
                                    "a pair of pants is not a recognizable " +
                                    "currency amount.\nOnly natural or decimal " +
                                    "numbers are allowed. You can consult the " +
                                    "management to find out about " +
                                    "the allowable prices.");
                }
                catch (Exception ex)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
                }
    
                try
                {
                    PriceOther = decimal.Parse(this.txtUnitPriceOther.Text);
                    if (PriceOther < 0)
                        throw new Exception("Negative numbers are " +
    					"not allowed for the price");
    			
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the unit " +
                                    "price of other items is not a valid amount." +
                                    "\nYou must enter only a natural or a " +
                                    "decimal number. For more information, " +
                                    "please consult the management to get " +
                                    "the right prices.");
                }
                catch (Exception ex)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
                }
    
                // Perform the necessary calculations
                SubTotalShirts = NumberOfShirts * PriceOneShirt;
                SubTotalPants = NumberOfPants * PriceAPairOfPants;
                SubTotalOther = NumberOfOther * PriceOther;
    
                this.txtSubTotalShirts.Text = SubTotalShirts.ToString();
                this.txtSubTotalPants.Text = SubTotalPants.ToString();
                this.txtSubTotalOther.Text = SubTotalOther.ToString();
    
                // Calculate the "temporary" total of the order
                TotalOrder = SubTotalShirts + SubTotalPants + SubTotalOther;
    
                // Display the receipt
                this.txtCustomerName2.Text = CustomerName;
                this.txtOrderDate.Text = OrderDate.ToString("D");
                this.txtTotalOrder.Text = TotalOrder.ToString();
            }
    
            private void btnTax_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
            {
                // Get the tax rate
                try
                {
                    TaxRate = decimal.Parse(this.txtTaxRate.Text) / 100;
                    if (TaxRate < 0)
                        throw new Exception("Negative numbers are not " +
                                            "allowed for a tax rate");
    			
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered is not " +
                                    "recognized as a valid tax rate." +
                                    "\nA valid tax rate is a value " +
                                    "between 0 and 100.00" +
                                    "\nPlease try again.");
                }
                catch (Exception ex)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
                }
    
                // Calculate the tax amount using a constant rate
                TaxAmount = TotalOrder * TaxRate;
                // Add the tax amount to the total order
                SalesTotal = TotalOrder + TaxAmount;
    
                this.txtTaxAmount.Text = TaxAmount.ToString("F");
                this.txtNetPrice.Text = SalesTotal.ToString("F");
            }
    
            private void btnDifference_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
            {
                decimal AmountTended = 0.00M, Difference = 0.00M;
    
                // Request money for the order
                try
                {
                    AmountTended = decimal.Parse(this.txtAmountTended.Text);
                    if (AmountTended < 0)
                        throw new Exception("Negative numbers are not " +
                                            "allowed forthe amount tended");
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the amount " +
                                    "tended is not valid. Only natural or " +
                                    "decimal numbers are allowed." +
                                    "Please try again.");
                }
                catch (Exception ex)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
                }
    
                // Calculate the difference owed to the customer
                // or that the customer still owes to the store
                Difference = AmountTended - SalesTotal;
    
                this.txtDifference.Text = Difference.ToString("F");
            }
        }
    }
  2. Test the application and return to your programming environment

Exceptions Nesting

The calculator simulator we have studied so far performs a division as one of its assignments. We learned that, in order to perform any operation, the compiler must first make sure that the user has entered a valid operator. Provided the operator is one of those we are expecting, we also must make sure that the user typed valid numbers. Even if these two criteria are met, it was possible that the user enter 0 for the denominator. The block that is used to check for a non-zero denominator depends on the exception that validates the operators. The exception that could result from a zero denominator depends on the user first entering a valid number for the denominator.

You can create an exception inside of another. This is referred to as nesting an exception. This is done by applying the same techniques we used to nest conditional statements. This means that you can write an exception that depends on, and is subject to, another exception. To nest an exception, write a try block in the body of the parent exception. The nested try block must be followed by its own catch(es) clause. To effectively handle the exception, make sure you include an appropriate throw in the try block. Here is an example:

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
        double Operand1, Operand2;
        double Result = 0.00;
        string Operator;

        try 
        {
	Operand1 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber1.Text);
	Operator = this.txtOperator.Text;
	Operand2 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber2.Text);

	if( Operator != "+" && Operator != "-" &&
	    Operator != "*" && Operator != "/" )
		throw new Exception(Operator);

	switch(Operator)
	{
	case "+":
		Result = Operand1 + Operand2;
		this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
		break;
	case "-":
		Result = Operand1 - Operand2;
		this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
		break;
	case "*":
		Result = Operand1 * Operand2;
		this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
		break;
	case "/":
	        try 
	       {
		if( Operand2 == 0 )
		throw new DivideByZeroException("Division by zero is not allowed");
		Result = Operand1 / Operand2;
		this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
	        }
	        catch(DivideByZeroException ex)
	        {
		MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
	        }
	        break;
	default:
	        MessageBox.Show("Bad Operation");
	        break;
               }
        }
        catch(FormatException)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("You type an invalid number. Please correct it");
        }
        catch(Exception ex)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("Operation Error: " + ex.Message + 
			" is not a valid operator");
        }
}

Exceptions and Methods

One of the most effective techniques used to deal with code is to isolate assignments. We have learned this when studying methods of classes. For example, the switch statement that was performing the operations in the “normal” version of our program can be written as follows:

private double Calculation(double Value1, double Value2, char Symbol)
{
        double Result = 0.00;

        switch(Symbol)
        {
        case '+':
	Result = Value1 + Value2;
	break;
        case '-':
	Result = Value1 - Value2;
	break;
        case '*':
	Result = Value1 * Value2;
	break;
        case '/':
	Result = Value1 / Value2;
	break;
        }

        return Result;
}

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
        double Operand1, Operand2;
        double Result = 0.00;
        char Operator;

        try 
        {
	Operand1 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber1.Text);
	Operator = char.Parse(this.txtOperator.Text);
	Operand2 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber2.Text);

	if( (Operator != '+') &&
                    (Operator != '-') && 
	    (Operator != '*') && 
	    (Operator != '/') )
	        throw new Exception(Operator.ToString());

	if( Operator == '/' )
	        if( Operand2 == 0 )
	          throw new DivideByZeroException("Division by zero is not allowed");
	Result = Operand1 / Operand2;
	this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
				
	Result = Calculation(Operand1, Operand2, Operator);
	this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
        }
        catch(FormatException)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("You type an invalid number. Please correct it");
        }
        catch(DivideByZeroException ex)
        {
	MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
        }
        catch(Exception ex)
        {
	MessageBox.Show("Operation Error: " + ex.Message +
			" is not a valid operator");
        }
}

This is an example of running the program:

You can still use regular methods along with methods that handle exceptions. Here is an example:

private double Addition(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;
		Result = Value1 + Value2;
	return Result;
}

private double Subtraction(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;

	Result = Value1 - Value2;
	return Result;
}

private double Multiplication(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;

	Result = Value1 * Value2;
	return Result;
}

private double Division(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;

	Result = Value1 / Value2;
	return Result;
}

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
	double Operand1, Operand2;
	double Result = 0.00;
	char Operator;

	try 
	{
		Operand1 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber1.Text);
		Operator = char.Parse(this.txtOperator.Text);
		Operand2 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber2.Text);

		if( Operator != '+' && Operator != '-' && 
			Operator != '*' && Operator != '/' )
			throw new Exception(Operator.ToString());

		if( Operator == '/' )
		if( Operand2 == 0 )
		  throw new DivideByZeroException("Division by zero is not allowed");
				
		switch(Operator)
		{
			case '+':
				Result = Addition(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
			case '-':
				Result = Subtraction(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
			case '*':
				Result = Multiplication(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
			case '/':
				Result = Division(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
		}

		this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
	}
	catch(FormatException)
	{
		MessageBox.Show("You type an invalid number. Please correct it");
	}
	catch(DivideByZeroException ex)
	{
		MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
	}
	catch(Exception ex)
	{
		MessageBox.Show("Operation Error: " + ex.Message +
				" is not a valid operator");
	}
}

As done in Main(), any method of a program can take care of its own exceptions that would occur in its body. Isolating assignments and handing them to methods is an important matter in the area of application programming. Consider the following Division method:

private double Addition(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;

	Result = Value1 + Value2;
	return Result;
}

private double Subtraction(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;

	Result = Value1 - Value2;
	return Result;
}

private double Multiplication(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;

	Result = Value1 * Value2;
	return Result;
}

private double Division(double Value1, double Value2)
{
	double Result;

	try 
	{
		if( Value2 == 0 )
		  throw new DivideByZeroException("Division by zero is not allowed");
				
		Result = Value1 / Value2;
		return Result;
	}
	catch(DivideByZeroException ex)
	{
		MessageBox.Show(ex.Message);
	}

	return 0.00;
}

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
	double Operand1, Operand2;
	double Result = 0.00;
	char Operator;

	try 
	{
		Operand1 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber1.Text);
		Operator = char.Parse(this.txtOperator.Text);
		Operand2 = double.Parse(this.txtNumber2.Text);

		if( Operator != '+' && Operator != '-' && 
			Operator != '*' && Operator != '/' )
			throw new Exception(Operator.ToString());

		switch(Operator)
		{
			case '+':
				Result = Addition(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
			case '-':
				Result = Subtraction(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
			case '*':
				Result = Multiplication(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
			case '/':
				Result = Division(Operand1, Operand2);
				break;
		}

		this.txtResult.Text = Result.ToString();
	}
	catch(FormatException)
	{
		MessageBox.Show("You type an invalid number. Please correct it");
	}
	catch(Exception ex)
	{
		MessageBox.Show("Operation Error: " + ex.Message +
				" is not a valid operator");
	}
}

One of the ways you can use methods in exception routines is to have a central method that receives variables, and sends them to an external method. The external method tests the value of a variable. If an exception occurs, the external method displays or sends a throw. This throw can be picked up by the method that sent the error.

 

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