Microsoft Visual C# Example Application: The Standard Deviation



The standard deviation is a value that indicates by how much the values of a set deviate from the mean. To calculate the standard deviation, you can use the following formula:

Standard Deviation

The factors in these equations are:

Factor Description
x Each of the values used in the series
n The number of values in the series
Σ The sum of values
s The standard deviation

ApplicationApplication: Calculating the Standard Deviation

  1. Start Microsoft Visual Studio
  2. To create a new application, on the main menu, click File -> New Project...
  3. In the middle list, click Windows Forms Application
  4. Change the Name to StandardDeviation2
  5. Click OK
  6. In the Solution Explorer, right-click Form1.cs and click Rename
  7. Type Exercise.cs and press Enter
  8. Design the form as follows:
    Standard Deviation
    Control Name Text
    Label Label   Value:
    TextBox ListBox txtValue  
    Button Button btnAdd Add
    ListBox Label lbxValues  
    Button Button btnClear Clear
    Label Label   Standard Deviation:
    TextBox Text Box txtStandard Deviation  
    Button Button btnClose Close
  9. Double-click an unoccupied area of the form
  10. Change the file as follows:
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.ComponentModel;
    using System.Data;
    using System.Drawing;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Windows.Forms;
    namespace MeasuresOfCenter
        public partial class Measures : Form
            List<double> values;
            public Measures()
            private void Measures_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
                values = new List<double>();
            void ShowValues()
                for (int i = 0; i < values.Count; i++)
  11. Return to the form
  12. Double-click the Add button
  13. Implement the event as follows:
    private void btnAdd_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        // This the value that will be added to the text box
        double value = 0.00;
        double sum = 0.00, sumSquares = 0.00, squareSums;
        double stdDev = 0.00;
        // Check that the user entered a value in the text box
        if (txtValue.Text.Length == 0)
            MessageBox.Show("You must enter a value.", "Standard Deviation");
            // Get the value the user entered
            value = double.Parse(txtValue.Text);
            // Add it to the collection
            // Show the values in the list box
            txtValue.Text = "";
        catch (FormatException)
            MessageBox.Show("The value you entered is invalid.",
                            "Standard Deviation");
        // Calculate the total for the sum
        for (int i = 0; i < values.Count; i++)
            sum += values[i];
        squareSums = sum * sum;
        for (int i = 0; i < values.Count; i++)
            sumSquares += (values[i] * values[i]);
        // Now we can calculate the standard deviation
        double numerator = values.Count * sumSquares - squareSums;
        double denominator = values.Count * (values.Count - 1);
        stdDev = Math.Sqrt(numerator / denominator);
        // Display the values(standard deviationand stuff)
        txtCount.Text = values.Count.ToString();
        txtSum.Text = sum.ToString("F");
        txtSumSquares.Text = sumSquares.ToString("F");
        txtSquareSums.Text = squareSums.ToString("F");
        txtStandardDeviation.Text = stdDev.ToString("F");
  14. Return to the form
  15. To execute, press F5
  16. Enter a few values and click Add after each
    Standard Deviation
  17. Close the form and return to your programming environment
  18. Double-click the Clear button
  19. Implement its event as follows:
    private void btnClear_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        txtValue.Text = "";
        txtCount.Text = "";
        txtSum.Text = "";
        txtMean.Text = "";
        txtStandardDeviation.Text = "";
  20. Return to the form
  21. To execute, press F5
  22. Enter a few values and click Add after each

    Standard Deviation
  23. Click Clear
  24. Close the form and return to your programming environment
  25. Double-click the Close button
  26. Implement the event as follows:
    private void btnClose_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
  27. To execute, press F5
  28. Enter a few values and click Add after each
    Standard Deviation
  29. Close the form and return to your programming environment



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