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Events

     

Introduction

Except for the main class of your program (the class that contains the Main() method), every class is mostly meant to interact with others, either to request values and methods of the other classes or to provide other classes with some values or a behavior they need. When a class A requests a value or service from another class B, class A is referred to as a client of class B. This relationship is important not simply because it establishes a relationship between both classes but also because class B should be ready to provide the value or behavior that a client needs at a certain time.

While a class B is asked to provide some values to, or perform some assignment(s) for, another class A, many things would happen. In fact, there is an order that the actions should follow. For example, during the lifetime of a program, that is, while a program is running, a class may be holding a value it can provide to its client but at another time, that value may not be available anymore, for any reason; nothing strange, this is just the ways it happens. Because different things can happen to a class B while a program is running, and because only class B would be aware of these, it must be able to signal to the other classes when there is a change. This is the basis of events: An event is an action that occurs on an object and affects it in a way that its clients must be made aware of. 

Event Creation

An event is declared like a pseudo-variable but based on a delegate. Therefore, to declare an event, you must have a delegate that would implement it. To actually declare an event, you use the event keyword with the following formula:

[attributes] [modifiers] event type declarator;
[attributes] [modifiers] event type member-name {accessor-declarations};

The attributes factor can be a normal C# attribute.

The modifier can be one or a combination of the following keywords: public, private, protected, internal, abstract, new, override, static, virtual, or extern.

The event keyword is required. It is followed by the name of the delegate that specifies its behavior. If the event is declared in the main class, it should be made static. Like everything in a program, an event must have a name. This would allow the clients to know what (particular) event occurred. Here is an example:

using System;

delegate void dlgSimple();

class Exercise
{
	public static event dlgSimple Simply;

	public static void Welcome()
	{
	
	}
}

When the event occurs, its delegate would be invoked. This specification is also referred to as hooking up an event. As the event occurs (or fires), the method that implements the delegate runs. This provides complete functionality for the event and makes the event ready to be used. Before using an event, you must combine it to the method that implements it. This can be done by passing the name of the method to the appropriate delegate, as we learned when studying delegates. You can then assign this variable to the event's name using the += operator. Once this is done, you can call the event. Here is an example:

using System;

delegate void dlgSimple();

class Exercise
{
	public static event dlgSimple Simply;

	public static void Welcome()
	{
	
	}

	public static void SayHello()
	{
		Simply();
	}

	static int Main()
	{
		Simply += new dlgSimple(Welcome);

		SayHello();

		return 0;
	}
}

Instead of the += operator used when initializing the event, you can implement add and remove of the event class. Here is an example:

using System;

delegate void dlgSimple();

class Exercise
{
	public event dlgSimple Simply
	{
		add
		{
			Simply += new dlgSimple(Welcome);
		}
		remove
		{
			Simply -= new dlgSimple(Welcome);
		}
	}

	public void Welcome()
	{
	
	}
}

Events and Windows Controls

 

Introduction

An application is made of various objects or controls. During the lifetime of an application, its controls regularly send messages to the operating system to do something on their behalf. These messages are similar to human messages and must be processed appropriately. Since most of the time more than one application is running on the computer, the controls of such an application also send messages to the operating system. As the operating system is constantly asked to perform these assignments, because there can be so many requests presented unpredictably, the operating system leaves it up to the controls to specify what they want, when they want it, and what behavior or result they expect. These scenarios work by the controls sending events.

Events in the .NET Framework are implements through the concepts of delegates and events as reviewed above. The most common events have already been created for the objects of the .NET Framework controls so much that you will hardly need to define new events, at least not in the beginning of your GUI programming adventure. Most of what you will do consists of implementing the desired behavior when a particular event fires. To start, you should know what events are available, when they, how they work, and what they produce.

To process a message, it (the message) must provide at least two pieces of information: What caused the message and what type of message is it? Both values are passed as the arguments to the event. Since all controls used in the .NET Framework are based on the Object class, the first argument must be an object type and represents the control that sent the message. 

As mentioned already, each control sends its own messages when necessary. Based on this, some messages are unique to some controls according to their roles. Some other messages are common to various controls, as they tend to provide similar actions. To manage such various configurations, the .NET Framework considers the messages in two broad categories.

As it happens, in order to perform their intended action(s), some messages do not require much information. For example, suppose your heart sends a message to the arm and states, “Raise your hand”. In this case, suppose everything is alright, the arm does not ask, “how do I raise my hand?”. It simply does because it knows how to, without any assistance. This type of message would be sent without much detailed information.

In the .NET Framework, a message that does not need particular information is carried by a class named EventArgs. In the event implementation, an EventArgs argument passed as the second parameter.

When a message must carry additional information, the control that sent the message specifies that information by the name of the second argument. Because there are various types of messages like that, there are also different types of classes used to carry such messages. We will introduce each class when appropriate.

Event Implementation

Although there are different means of implementing an event, there are two main ways you can initiate its coding. If the control has a default event and if you double-click it, the studio would initiate the default event and open the Code Editor. The cursor would be positioned in the body of the event, ready to receive your instructions. Another technique you can use consists of displaying the first and clicking either the form or the control that will fire the event. Then, in the Properties window, click the Events button Events, and double-click the name of the event you want to use.

Overview of Events

 

Control Painting

While an application is opening on the screen or it needs to be shown, the operating system must display its controls. To do this, the controls colors and other visual aspects must be retrieved and restored. This is done by painting the control. If the form that hosts the controls was hidden somewhere such as behind another window or was minimized, when it comes up, the operating system needs to paint it (again).

When a control gets painted, it fires the Paint() event. The syntax of the Paint() event is:

public event PaintEventHandler Paint;

This event is carried by a PaintEventHandler delegate declared as follows:

public delegate void PaintEventHandler(object sender, PaintEventArgs e);

The PaintEventArgs parameter provides information about the area to be painted and the graphics object to paint.

Control Resizing

When using an application, one of the actions a user can perform on a form or a control is to change its size, provided the object allows it. Also, some time to time, if possible, the user can minimize, maximize, or restore a window. Whenever any of these actions occur, the operating system must keep track of the location and size of a control. For example, if a previously minimized or maximized window is being restored, the operating system must remember where the object was previously positioned and what its dimensions were.

When the size of a control has been changed, it fires the Resize() event, which is a EventArgs type.

 
 

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