Fundamentals of Variables

Introduction

So far, when we needed a value, we wrote it in the parentheses of print(). Such a value is used only once. If you need that value, you must type it again, which could result in an error. As an alternative, you can use an area of the computer memory (the random-access memory or RAM) to store a value so that, whenever you need that value, you can simply get it from the memory area where the value is stored.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Introducing Variables

  1. Start Microsoft Visual Studio
  2. In the Visual Studio 2022 dialog box, under Get Started, click Create a New Project (if Microsoft Visual Studio was already displaying, on the main menu, you can click File -> New -> Project...)
  3. In the Create a New Project dialog box, click the arrow of the Languages combo box
  4. In the list that comes up, click Python
    Make sure the next two combo boxes are displaying All Platforms and All Project Types respectively
  5. In the list of projects types, make sure Python Application is selected (if not, click it).
    Press Enter
  6. In the Configure Your New Project dialog box, change the Project Name to Exercise2
  7. To save the document, on the main menu, click File -> Save
  8. In the Save As dialog box, select the directory you. Click the New Folder button. Type Exercise7 and press Enter
  9. Change the File Name to Exercise
  10. Click Save
  11. Press Enter
  12. In the empty document, type the following lines:
    print("=================================")

Declaring a Variable

To reserve an area of the computer memory, you must communicate your intention to the computer. This is referred to as declaring a variable.

The Name of a Variable

To declare a variable, in the Code Editor, type a name that will be used to refer to the reserved area of the computer memory. Here is an example:

price

There are various policies you can use to name your variables. You have many options:

There are restrictions:

There are suggestions also. For example, although the name of a variable can start with two underscores, avoid doing that (avoid starting the name of a variable with two underscores). Also avoid starting and ending the name of a variable with two underscores (because, as we will see later, the Python language includes many built-in variables that use names like that; this avoidance would reduce some confusion).

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Declaring Variables

Keywords

A computer language has some words for its internal use. These words are called keywords. When naming your variables, you should (must) avoid using those words for your variables.

and as assert async await
break class continue def del
elif else except False finally
for from global if import
in is lambda None nonlocal
not or pass raise return
True try while with yield

Initializing a Variable

A computer deals with various types of values. Each category of value uses a certain amount of memory. When you declare a variable, the computer wants to know how much memory would be necessary for a certain variable. To provide this information, assign the appropriate value to the variable. This primary assignment is referred to as initialization. This means that, when you declare a variable and assign a value to it, you are said to initialize the variable.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Initializing Variables

  1. In the document, make the following changes:
    first_name = "Peter"
    last_name = 'Naughton'
    
    print("=================================")
  2. To execute the application, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging:
    =================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  3. Press Enter to close the window and return to your programming environment

Python is an Inferred Language

When you declare a variable, you must initialize it. This is because, unlike many other computer languages (examples are C/C++, Pascal, etc) where you must specify a data type for the variable, in Python, you indicate the type of variable by the value you assign to it. It is when you initialize a variable that the compiler figures out what type that variable is. When a language behaves like that, that is when a language must "figure out" the type of a variable, that language is said to be an inferred language. Python is an inferred language (some languages also use this feature of inferred languages but they require that you use a certain keyword when you declare a variable, that required keyword doesn't specify the type of the variable; therefore, like in Python, you must initialize the variable so the compiler of that language would figure out (or infer) the type of that variable; examples of those languages are C++ that uses the auto keyword, Visual Basic that uses the Dim keyword, and C# that uses the var keyword, etc (JavaScript also uses the var keyword but, although JavaScript also is an inferred language, it doesn't require that you initialize its variables).

Primary Topics on String Variables

Introduction to Data Types

We have just seen that Python is an inferred language, which means the value you assign to a variable allows the compiler to know the type of that variable. Sometimes, when you declare a variable, you may not have a value for the variable. If you want, when declaring a variable, you can indicate its type. This is done by applying a certain keyword to the variable. The keyword you apply is called a data type. The formula to indicate the type of a variable is:

variable-name : data-type

When it comes to data types, there is a specific keyword for each. If you are declaring a variable for a string, the keyword to use is str. Here are examples:

first_name : str
last_name : str

If you want to initialize the variable, you can assign the desired value after the data type.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Indicating a Data Type

Introduction to Mutability and Immutability

The mutability of an object (consider some creatures such as larva, snake, etc) is the ability for that object to change its state (or appearance). The opposite is immutability, which is the inability for an existing object to change its state or situation.

In some areas in computer programming, once you create an object, you cannot change that object. In the world of Python programming, strings are immutable.

Introduction to Value Display

After declaring and initializing a variable, the most fundamental thing you can do with it is to display its value to the screen. To do this, you can include the name of the variable in the parentheses of print().

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Displaying Variables

  1. Change the document as follows:
    first_name: str = "Peter"
    last_name: str = 'Naughton'
    
    print(first_name)
    print(last_name)
    print("=================================")
  2. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
    Peter
    Naughton
    =================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  3. Press Enter to close the window and return to your programming environment
  4. Change the document as follows:
    first_name: str = "Peter"
    last_name: str = 'Naughton'
    
    print("First Name:")
    print(first_name)
    print("Last Name:")
    print(last_name)
    print("=================================")
  5. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
    First Name:
    Peter
    Last Name:
    Naughton
    =================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  6. Press Enter to close the window and return to your programming environment

Adding Strings

You can combine one or more strings to get a new string that includes the other strings. This operation can be performed with the + operator.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Adding Strings

  1. Change the document as follows:
    first_name : str = "Peter"
    last_name : str = 'Naughton'
    
    fn = "First Name: " + first_name
    ln = "Last Name: " + last_name
    
    print(fn)
    print(ln)
    print("=================================")
  2. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
    First Name: Peter
    Last Name: Naughton
    =================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  3. Press Enter to close the window and return to your programming environment
  4. In the same way, you can use the + operator in on strings in the parentheses of print(). For some examples, change the document as follows:
    first_name : str = "Peter"
    last_name : str = 'Naughton'
    
    print("First Name: " + first_name)
    print("Last Name: " + last_name)
    print("=================================")
  5. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
  6. Press Enter to close the window and return to your programming environment
  7. In the same way, you can add many strings. For some examples, change the document as follows:
    first_name : str = "Peter"
    last_name : str = 'Naughton'
    
    print("Full Name: " + first_name + " " + last_name)
    print("=================================")
  8. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
  9. Press Enter to close the window and return to your programming environment

Displaying One Value

As we have already seen, to display the value of a variable, you can pass the name of the variable to the print() function. Here are two examples:

name = "Gertrude Allen"
number = 952

print("Full Name:")
print(name)
print("---------------")
print("Number:")
print(number)
print("=================================")

This would produce:

Full Name:
Gertrude Allen
---------------
Number:
952
=================================
Press any key to close this window . . . . . .

If you to display a string and a variable as a combination, in the parentheses of print(), type the string (in single or double-quotes), followed by a comma, and followed by the name of the variable.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Displaying Values

  1. Change the document as follows:
    first_name : str = "Peter"
    last_name : str = 'Naughton'
    
    print("First Name:", first_name)
    print("Last Name: ", last_name)
    print("=================================")
  2. To execute the application, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
  3. Press Enter to close the window and return to your programming environment

Displaying a Chain of Values

If you have a series of values you want to display, in the parentheses of print(), write each value but separate them with commas. Here is an example:

fname = "Gertrude"
mname = "Stéphanie"
lname = "Allen"

print("Full Name: ", fname, mname, lname)
print("=================================")

This would produce:

Full Name:  Gertrude St├ęphanie Allen
=================================
Press any key to close this window . . . . . .

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Displaying Values

  1. Change the document as follows:
    first_name : str = "Peter"
    mi = 'R'
    last_name : str = 'Naughton'
    
    print("Full Name:", first_name, mi, last_name)
    print("=================================")
  2. To execute the application, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging:
    Full Name: Peter R Naughton
    =================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  3. Press Q to close the window and return to your programming environment

Requesting a Value from the User

So far, when we needed a value in an application, we provided that value. Application interactivity consists of letting a user provide a value and letting the computer deal with that value however necessary. To request a value from a user, you use input(). An example is:

input()

Normally, when you request a value from a user, it is because you want to involve that value in an operation. One way you do this is to first store the value produced by input() in a variable. To do that, you can assign input() to a variable. Here is an example:

first_name = input()

When you use input(), a pulsing caret would display in the window, but it doesn't tell the user anything. To let the user know what you are expecting, you can formulate a message and put it in the parentheses of input(). Here is an example:

first_name = input("Enter the Employee's Name:")

After using input() and assigning it to a variable, you can then use the variable as holding the value provided by the user.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Requesting User Input

  1. To request some values, change the code as follows:
    print("Watts' A Loan")
    print('===================================================')
    print('Enter the information about the loan applicant')
    fname = input("First Name: ")
    lname = input("Last Name:  ")
    
    print("==================================================")
    print("Loan Applicant")
    print("----------------------")
    print("First Name:", fname)
    print("Last Name: ", lname)
    print("==================================================")
  2. To execute the application, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
  3. When asked to provide a first name, type Alexandra and press Enter
  4. When asked to provide a first name, type Colson and press Enter
    Watts' A Loan
    ===================================================
    Enter the information about the loan applicant
    First Name: Alexandra
    Last Name:  Colson
    ==================================================
    Loan Applicant
    ----------------------
    First Name: Alexandra
    Last Name:  Colson
    ==================================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  5. Press A to close the window and return to your programming environment
  6. To start a new project, click inside the Code Editor, press Ctrl + A to select everything and press Delete to delete everything
  7. In the empty document, type the following lines of code:
    print("Depreciation: Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    
    mc = "6500"
    sv = "500"
    el = "5"
    
    print("==============================================")
    print("Depreciation - Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Machine Cost:             ", mc)
    print("Salvage Value:            ", sv)
    print("Estimated Life:           ", el, "Years")
    print("==============================================")
  8. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging:
    Depreciation: Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    ==============================================
    Depreciation - Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    Machine Cost:              6500
    Salvage Value:             500
    Estimate Life:             5 Years
    ==============================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .

Introduction to Data Types

We have just seen that Python is an inferred language, which means the value you assign to the variable allows the compiler to know the type of that variable. Sometimes, when you declare a variable, you may not have a value for the variable. If you want, when declaring a variable, you can indicate its type. This is done by applying a certain keyword to the variable. The keyword you apply is called a data type. The formula to indicate the type of a variable is:

variable-name : data-type

When it comes to data types, there is a specific keyword for each. If you are declaring a variable for a string, the keyword to use is str. Here are examples:

student_name : str
home_address : str

If you want to initialize the variable, you can assign the desired value after the data type. Here are examples:

student_name : str = "Rose Akumba"
home_address : str ="8244 Granite Road

print(student_name)
print(home_address)
print("=================================")

This would produce:

Rose Akumba
8244 Granite Road
=================================
Press any key to close this window . . . . . .

Variables for Natural Numbers

Introduction

In the previous lesson, we were introduced to numbers. You can declare a variable that holds a numeric value. Python supports integers. To use a variable that can hold natural numbers, declare a variable and assign a number with digits only. Here is an example:

a = 248

If the number is large, you can separate the thousands with underscores. Here are examples:

a = 248
b = 82_794
c = 5_795_749

An Integral Type

The data type that supports natural numbers is named int. When declaring a variable, if you want to indicate that the variable is for a natural number, apply this data type. Here are examples:

a : int = 248
b : int = 82_794
c : int = 5_795_749

Converting a Value to an Integer

By default, the primary values you get in an application are string. If you want to treat the value as an integral number, you must first convert the value from a string to an integer. To do this, write int(). In the parentheses, type the value you want to convert. You can then use that value. For example, you can assign that conversion to a variable. Here are examples:

print("Depreciation: Straight-Line Method")
print("----------------------------------------------")

mc = "6500"
sv = "500"
el = "5"

machine_cost   = int(mc)
salvage_value  = int(sv)
estimated_life = int(el)

print("==============================================")
print("Depreciation - Straight-Line Method")
print("----------------------------------------------")
print("Machine Cost:             ", machine_cost)
print("Salvage Value:            ", salvage_value)
print("Estimated Life:           ", estimated_life, "Years")
print("==============================================")

This would produce:

Depreciation: Straight-Line Method
----------------------------------------------
==============================================
Depreciation - Straight-Line Method
----------------------------------------------
Machine Cost:              6500
Salvage Value:             500
Estimate Life:             5 Years
==============================================
Press any key to close this window . . . . . .

Requesting a Value from a User

We have already seen that, to request a value from a user, you can use input(). We have already seen that, by default, input() produces a string value. Then, we saw that, to convert a value, you can put it into int().

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Converting and Requesting an Integral Value

  1. Change the document as follows:
    estimated_life : int
    machine_cost   : int
    salvage_value  : int
    
    print("Depreciation: Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Enter the values for the machine depreciation")
    
    mc = input("Machine Cost:              ")
    sv = input("Salvage Value:             ")
    el = input("Estimated Life (in Years): ")
    
    machine_cost   = int(mc)
    salvage_value  = int(sv)
    estimated_life = int(el)
    
    print("==============================================")
    print("Depreciation - Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Machine Cost:             ", machine_cost)
    print("Salvage Value:            ", salvage_value)
    print("Estimated Life:           ", estimated_life, "Years")
    print("==============================================")
  2. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
  3. When the machine cost is requested, type 6500 and press Enter
  4. When the salvage value is requested, type 500 and press Enter
  5. When the estimated life is requested, type 5 and press Enter
    Depreciation: Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    Enter the values for the machine depreciation
    Machine Cost:              6500
    Salvage Value:             500
    Estimated Life (in Years): 5
    ==============================================
    Depreciation - Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    Machine Cost:              6500
    Salvage Value:             500
    Estimate Life:             5 Years
    ==============================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  6. Press Z to close the window and return to your programming environment
  7. Change the document as follows:
    estimated_life : int
    machine_cost   : int
    salvage_value  : int
    
    print("Depreciation: Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Enter the values for the machine depreciation")
    
    machine_cost   = int(input("Machine Cost:              "))
    salvage_value  = int(input("Salvage Value:             "))
    estimated_life = int(input("Estimated Life (in Years): "))
    
    print("==============================================")
    print("Depreciation - Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Machine Cost:             ", machine_cost)
    print("Salvage Value:            ", salvage_value)
    print("Estimated Life:           ", estimated_life, "Years")
    print("==============================================")
  8. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
  9. When the machine cost is requested, type 6850 and press Enter
  10. When the salvage value is requested, type 750 and press Enter
  11. When the estimated life is requested, type 8 and press Enter
    Depreciation: Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    Enter the values for the machine depreciation
    Machine Cost:              6850
    Salvage Value:             750
    Estimated Life (in Years): 8
    ==============================================
    Depreciation - Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    Machine Cost:              6850
    Salvage Value:             750
    Estimate Life:             8 Years
    ==============================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  12. Press Z to close the window and return to your programming environment

Operations on Natural Numbers

As seen in the previous lesson, Python supports all types of arithmetic operations, including the addition, the subtraction, and the multiplication. When it comes to the division, Python supports a special way to divide. When dividing numbers, by default, you get a decimal number. In some cases, you want the result of the division to be a natural number. In this case, to perform the division, use the // operator.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Converting and Requesting an Integral Value

  1. Change the document as follows:
    estimated_life : int
    machine_cost   : int
    salvage_value  : int
    
    print("Depreciation: Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Enter the values for the machine depreciation")
    
    machine_cost   = int(input("Machine Cost:              "))
    salvage_value  = int(input("Salvage Value:             "))
    estimated_life = int(input("Estimated Life (in Years): "))
    
    depreciatiable_amount = machine_cost - salvage_value;
    
    depreciation_rate = 100 // estimated_life
    yearly_depreciation = depreciatiable_amount // estimated_life
    
    print("==============================================")
    print("Depreciation - Straight-Line Method")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Machine Cost:             ", machine_cost)
    print("Salvage Value:            ", salvage_value)
    print("Estimated Life:           ", estimated_life, "Years")
    print("Depreciation Rate:        ", depreciation_rate, "%")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Depreciable Amount:       ", depreciatiable_amount)
    print("Yearly Depreciation:      ", yearly_depreciation)
    print("==============================================");
  2. To execute, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging
  3. When the machine cost is requested, type 6800 and press Enter
  4. When the salvage value is requested, type 500 and press Enter
  5. When the estimated life is requested, type 5 and press Enter
    Depreciation: Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    Enter the values for the machine depreciation
    Machine Cost:              6500
    Salvage Value:             500
    Estimated Life (in Years): 5
    ==============================================
    Depreciation - Straight-Line Method
    ----------------------------------------------
    Machine Cost:              6500
    Salvage Value:             500
    Estimate Life:             5 Years
    Depreciation Rate:         20 %
    ----------------------------------------------
    Depreciable Amount:        6000
    Yearly Depreciation:       1200
    ==============================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  6. Press W to close the window and return to your programming environment
  7. Click inside the document and press Ctrl + A to select everything

Variables for Decimal Numbers

Introduction

A floating-point number is a number that displays either as a natural number or with a decimal part. To store such a value in the computer memory, declare a variable and assign a decimal number to it. You can then use the variable normally. For example, you can involve it in any arithmetic operation. You can also display the value using any of the techniques we have used so far.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Introducing Decimal Variables

  1. In the document, type the following:
    full_name = ""
    first_name: str
    last_name : str
    
    print("FUN DEPARTMENT STORE")
    print("==============================================")
    first_name = "Roberta"
    last_name  = "Jenkins"
    h_sal = 19.47
    mon = 9
    tue = 8.5
    wed = 7.5
    thu = 10
    fri = 8.5
    
    full_name   = first_name + " " + last_name
    time_worked = mon + tue + wed + thu + fri
    net_pay     = h_sal * time_worked
    
    print("Payroll Evaluation")
    print("==============================================")
    print("Employee Information")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Full Name:     ", full_name)
    print("Hourly Salary: ", h_sal)
    print("==============================================")
    print("Time Worked")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Monday:        ", mon)
    print("Tuesday:       ", tue)
    print("Wednesday:     ", wed)
    print("Thursday:      ", thu)
    print("Friday:        ", fri)
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Total Time:    ", time_worked)
    print("Net Pay:       ", net_pay)
    print("==============================================")
  2. To execute the application, on the main menu, click Debug -> Start Without Debugging:
    FUN DEPARTMENT STORE
    ==============================================
    Payroll Evaluation
    ==============================================
    Employee Information
    ----------------------------------------------
    Full Name:      Roberta Jenkins
    Hourly Salary:  19.47
    ==============================================
    Time Worked
    ----------------------------------------------
    Monday:         9
    Tuesday:        8.5
    Wednesday:      7.5
    Thursday:       10
    Friday:         8.5
    ----------------------------------------------
    Total Time:     43.5
    Net Pay:        846.9449999999999
    ==============================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .

A Floating Type

Decimal numbers are supported with a data type named float. When you declare a variable, you may not have a value for the variable. When declaring a variable that would hold a decimal number, if you want, you can apply that data type. Here are examples:

full_name : str
h_sal : float
time_worked : float
net_pay : float 

Converting a Value to Float

Remember that, by default, values are given to you as strings. If you have such a value and need to involve it in a calculation, you must first convert it. To do this, type float(). In the parentheses, write the value or the name of a variable that must be converted.

Also remember that, if you request a value from a user using input, that value is typically a string. If you want to treat the value as a decimal number, you must first convert it. To do this, type float() and, in the parentheses, type the value to be converted.

Practical LearningPractical Learning: Converting a Value to Float

  1. Change the document as follows:
    full_name = ""
    h_sal : float
    time_worked : float
    net_pay : float
    first_name: str
    last_name : str
    mon : float
    tue : float
    wed : float
    thu : float
    fri : float
    
    print("FUN DEPARTMENT STORE")
    print("==============================================")
    print("Payroll Preparation")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Enter the following pieces of information")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Employee Information")
    first_name = input("First Name:    ")
    last_name  = input("Last Name:     ")
    h_sal = float(input("Hourly Salary: "))
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Timed worked")
    mon = float(input("Monday:        "))
    tue = float(input("Tuesday:       "))
    wed = float(input("Wednesday:     "))
    thu = float(input("Thursday:      "))
    fri = float(input("Friday:        "))
    
    full_name   = first_name + " " + last_name
    time_worked = mon + tue + wed + thu + fri
    net_pay     = h_sal * time_worked
    
    print("==============================================")
    print("FUN DEPARTMENT STORE")
    print("==============================================")
    print("Payroll Evaluation")
    print("==============================================")
    print("Employee Information")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Full Name:     ", full_name)
    print("Hourly Salary: ", h_sal)
    print("==============================================")
    print("Time Worked")
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Monday:        ", mon)
    print("Tuesday:       ", tue)
    print("Wednesday:     ", wed)
    print("Thursday:      ", thu)
    print("Friday:        ", fri)
    print("----------------------------------------------")
    print("Total Time:    ", time_worked)
    print("Net Pay:       ", net_pay)
    print("=============================================="): float
  2. To execute and test the application, on the main menu, click Build -> Start Debugging
  3. When requested, each of the following pieces of information and press Enter each time:
    First Name: Roberta
    Last Name: Jenkins
    Hourly Salary: 19.47
    Monday: 9
    Tuesday: 8.5
    Wednesday: 7.5
    Thursday: 10
    Friday: 8.5
    FUN DEPARTMENT STORE
    ==============================================
    Payroll Preparation
    ----------------------------------------------
    Enter the following pieces of information
    ----------------------------------------------
    Employee Information
    First Name:    Roberta
    Last Name:     Jenkins
    Hourly Salary: 19.47
    ----------------------------------------------
    Timed worked
    Monday:        9
    Tuesday:       8.5
    Wednesday:     7.5
    Thursday:      10
    Friday:        8.5
    ==============================================
    FUN DEPARTMENT STORE
    ==============================================
    Payroll Evaluation
    ==============================================
    Employee Information
    ----------------------------------------------
    Full Name:      Roberta Jenkins
    Hourly Salary:  19.47
    ==============================================
    Time Worked
    ----------------------------------------------
    Monday:         9.0
    Tuesday:        8.5
    Wednesday:      7.5
    Thursday:       10.0
    Friday:         8.5
    ----------------------------------------------
    Total Time:     43.5
    Net Pay:        846.9449999999999
    ==============================================
    Press any key to close this window . . . . . .
  4. Press S to close the window and return to your programming environment
  5. Close your programming environment

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